SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 50 , Issue 11 : 1732(2020) https://doi.org/10.1360/SSI-2020-0004

Patent analysis review of automated driving vehicle safety technology

More info
  • ReceivedJan 5, 2020
  • AcceptedApr 27, 2020
  • PublishedOct 20, 2020


Funded by




[1] Walther W, Hermann W. Autonomous Driving: Technical, Legal and Social Aspects. Berlin: Springer, 2016. 425--449. Google Scholar

[2] US Department of Transportation. Critical reasons for crashes investigated in the national motor vehicle crash causation survey. Traffic Safety Facts — Crash Stats, 2015. http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2016/ph240/pourshafeie1/docs/critical.pdf. Google Scholar

[3] Montgomery W D. Public and private benefits of autonomous vehicles. Securing America's Future Energy, 2018. Google Scholar

[4] Montgomery W D, Mudge R, Groshen E L, et al. America's workforce and the self-driving future: realizing productivity gains and spurring economic growth. Securing America's Future Energy, 2018. Google Scholar

[5] Aufrère R, Gowdy J, Mertz C. Perception for collision avoidance and autonomous driving. Mechatronics, 2003, 13: 1149-1161 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Xie H, Dong D C, Ou D X. A new generation of intelligent transportation based on the internet of things. Technol Economy Areas Commun, 2011, 13: 33--36. Google Scholar

[7] Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Federal automated vehicles policy — accelerating the next revolution in roadway safety. 2016. https://www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.dot.gov/files/federal~automated~vehicles~policy.pdf. Google Scholar

[8] Benson A, Tefft, B C, Svancara A M, et al. Potential reduction in crashes, injuries and deaths from large-scale deployment of advanced driver assistance systems. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 2018. Google Scholar

[9] World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety. 2016. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/189242/1/9789241~565066eng.pdf. Google Scholar

[10] Haddon Jr W. The changing approach to the epidemiology, prevention, and amelioration of trauma: the transition to approaches etiologically rather than descriptively based.. Am J Public Health Nations Health, 1968, 58: 1431-1438 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Waldrop M M. Autonomous vehicles: No drivers required. Nature, 2015, 518: 20-23 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[12] Rumar K. Transport safety visions, targets and strategies: beyond 2000. European Transport Safety Council, 1999. Google Scholar

[13] US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Report of traffic collision involving an autonomous vehicle. 2016. https://www.dmv.ca.gov/portal/dmv/detail/vr/autonomous/autonomousvehol316. Google Scholar

[14] US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Laboratory test procedure for the new car assessment program electronic stability control system testing and FMVSS NO.126, electronic stability control systems indicative test for compliance, 2013 edition. 2013. Google Scholar

[15] Euro NCAP. Euro NACP: assessment protocol -adult occupant protection. Version 8.0.2, 2017. Google Scholar

[16] China Automotive Technology and Research Center. C-NCAP management regulation offical. 2018 edition, 2018. Google Scholar

[17] Tsugawa S, Kato S, Aoki K. An automated truck platoon for energy saving. In: Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Francisco, 2011. 4109--4114. Google Scholar

[18] Zhou Q, Ji P J, Huang Y, et al. Challenges and opportunities of smart occupant protection against motor vehicle collision accidents in future traffic environment. J Autom Safe Energy, 2017, 8: 333--350. Google Scholar

[19] Ji P, Huang Y, Zhou Q. Mechanisms of using knee bolster to control kinematical motion of occupant in reclined posture for lowering injury risk. Int J Crashworthiness, 2017, 22: 415-424 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Ji P J, Zhou Q. Simulate uniform restraint concept for wide ranging crash protection. In: Proceedings of International IRCOBI Asia Conference on the Biomechanics of Injury, Seoul, 2016. 87--89. Google Scholar

[21] ISO 26262-12:2018, Road vehicles - functional safety, Version 12, 2018. Google Scholar

[22] Lv Y. The safety of the intended functionality of intelligent driving vehicles. Autom Digest, 2019, 9: 1--7. Google Scholar

[23] Shah S A. Safe-AV: a fault tolerant safety architecture for autonomous vehicles. Dissertation for Ph.D. Hamilton: McMaster University, 2019. Google Scholar

[24] ISO/CD 21448:2019, Road vehicles - safety of the intended functionality, Version 1, 2019. Google Scholar

[25] Control issues in automated highway systems. IEEE Control Syst, 1994, 14: 21-32 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Shalev-Shwartz S, Shammah S, Shashua A. On a formal model of safe and scalable self-driving cars,. arXiv Google Scholar

[27] ISO/SAE CD 21434, Road vehicles - cybersecurity engineering, Version 1, 2016. Google Scholar

[28] SAE J3061-2016, Cybersecurity guidebook for cyber-physical vehicle systems, Version 1, 2016. Google Scholar

[29] Jin S K. Conception and development of autonomous driving vehicle. China Terminol, 2017, 19: 75--78. Google Scholar

[30] Wang R H, Li J. Analysis on the application and development trend of modern vehicle electronic technology. Electron World, 2014, 12: 16--17. Google Scholar

[31] Mizoi Y, Sanada Y. Safety device system for self-advancing golf cart. JP Patent, 10 119 768, 1998-05-12. Google Scholar

[32] Wagner J, Bayer S, Toelge T. Method for controlling a hydraulic braking system in open loop. US Patent, 6 244 670, 2001-06-12. Google Scholar

[33] Zechmann J, Irion A, Holl E. Method and device for controlling a braking system. US Patent, 6 439 675, 2002-08-27. Google Scholar

[34] Wang S F. Road Recognition Technology of Driverless Vehicle Based on Artificial Intelligence. Beijing: China Machine Press, 2018. Google Scholar

[35] Jin W R, Bakhtiar B L. Driving based lane offset control for lane centering system. US Patent, 8 977 419, 2015-03-10. Google Scholar

[36] Joachim S, Jan F, Soeren H, et al. Driver assistance system. US Patent, 9 051 008, 2015-06-09. Google Scholar

[37] Mourad A, Puchinger J, Chu C. Owning or sharing autonomous vehicles: comparing different ownership and usage scenarios. Eur Transp Res Rev, 2019, 11: 1--20. Google Scholar

[38] Yong L. Artificial intelligence promotes the paradigm shift of information security — a case study of driverless car by baidu. J Inform Secur Res, 2016, 2: 958--968. Google Scholar

[39] Liao Y, Yu Y G. Comparison and analysis of technology patents of Baidu and Google automated driving vehicles. Beijing Autom Eng, 2017, 6: 5--8. Google Scholar

[40] Hu X X. Development status and safety consideration of intelligent vehicle automatic driving technology in China. J Hunan Police Academy, 2019, 31: 99--106. Google Scholar

[41] Editorial Department of China Journal of Highway and Transport. Review on china's automotive engineering research progress: 2017. China J Highway Transp, 2017, 30: 1--197. Google Scholar

[42] The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The Federal Automated Vehicle Policy. Report of US Department of Transportation, 2016. Google Scholar

[43] Yuan P B, Tong H F, Zhao Y H. Global patent market research of the automated driving vehicle technology. Global Sci Technol Econom Outlook, 2018, 33: 74--82. Google Scholar

[44] Robert B T, Sandipan B. Apparatus and method of automated manufacturing. US Patent, 7 974 737, 2011-07-05. Google Scholar

[45] Thomas L M, Scott A W, Brian B. System and method for recording vehicle events and for generating reports corresponding to the recorded vehicle events based on driver status. US Patent, 8 736 434, 2014-05-27. Google Scholar

[46] Mizuno S. Guide method for unmanned truck. JP Patent, 60 186 910, 1985-09-24. Google Scholar

[47] Suzuki K. Obstacle processor for unmanned carrying car. JP Patent, 61 265 606, 1986-11-25. Google Scholar

[48] Ninomiya Y, Sugimoto G, Hongo T, et al. Obstacle detecting device for unmanned vehicle. JP Patent, 62 274 316, 1987-11-28. Google Scholar

[49] Tomoyama S. Method for guiding unmanned carriage. JP Patent, 01 026 208, 1989-01-27. Google Scholar

[50] Danz C, Lee W C. Arrangement for semi-autonomous support to vehicle parking regulates and or controls servo arrangement to automatically carry out steering movements or corrections in only defined small angular range. DE Patent, 10 337 842, 2005-01-05. Google Scholar

[51] Du Y H, Yang A Z, Jin J G, et al. Aided driving system on rain or snow days and aided driving method. CN Patent, 102 866 695, 2017-08-25. Google Scholar

[52] He J, Rong H, Wang W Y, et al. Development summary of baidu and google driverless car. Auto Electric Parts, 2017, 1: 19--21. Google Scholar

[53] Luis R P G, Nathaniel F, Andy S, et al. Transitioning a mixed-mode vehicle to autonomous mode. US Patent, 8 078 349, 2011-12-13. Google Scholar

[54] Julien R. Method for operating an occupant protection by means of a passenger protection device and occupant protection device. DE Patent, 10 2017 007 771, 2019-02-21. Google Scholar

[55] Zhang Y X, He W Q. Passenger safety system, flexible protection device and controller. CN Patent, 110 154 973, 2019-08-23. Google Scholar

[56] Akaha H. Occupant protection device, occupant protection device control method, and program. JP Patent, 2018 149 892, 2018-09-27. Google Scholar

[57] Zhu F. Collision prediction and forward airbag deployment system for autonomous driving vehicles. US Patent, 10 183 641, 2019-01-22. Google Scholar

[58] Matthew S W, Scott C P. System for safe passenger departure from autonomous vehicle. US Patent, 10 365 654, 2019-07-30. Google Scholar

[59] Viktor S. Vehicle with impact safety system for passers-by. DE Patent, 20 2019 103 425, 2019-08-22. Google Scholar

[60] Mohsen M, Gurmitsingh M B. Systems, methods and apparatuses for diagnostic fault detection by parameter data using a redundant processor architecture. US Patent, 2019 0180 526, 2019-06-13. Google Scholar

[61] Wang X Y, Yang K, Yin Q J, et al. Fault determination method and device of autonomous vehicle, equipment and storage medium. CN Patent, 110 083 146, 2019-08-02. Google Scholar

[62] Huang B, Xu S. Sensor self-checking system of intelligent driving vehicle and multi-sensing fusing system. CN Patent, 106 840 242, 2017-06-13. Google Scholar

[63] Fang H M, Du M X, Wu C, et al. Vehicle automatic driving control system with multi-redundancy safety mechanism. CN Patent, 110 203 208, 2019-09-06. Google Scholar

[64] Yousuf M A, CHAN T Y, Ganapathi R, et al. Method of using a single controller(ecu) for a fault-tolerant or fail-operational self-driving system. WO Patent, 2018 237 121, 2019-04-11. Google Scholar

[65] Alexander T. Device for the control of a security procedure, a method for testing the operation of the device, as well as motor vehicle with the device. DE Patent, 10 2017 209 721, 2018-10-11. Google Scholar

[66] Wang J Q, Ding K, Kong Z W, et al. Automatic redundant electronic steering system of steering vehicle. CN Patent, 208 165 094, 2018-11-30. Google Scholar

[67] Yang J L. Remote control method and device for autonomous vehicle, and server. CN Patent, 109 116 720, 2019-01-01. Google Scholar

[68] Mao X Y, Shang S L, Cui H F. Analysis of influencing factors of auto driving safety and Countermeasures. Shanghai Auto, 2018, 1: 33--37. Google Scholar

[69] Mirko C. Challenges in The Interplay Between Function Safety and Safety of The Intend Functionality. Automated Driving Report. 2018. Google Scholar

[70] Shang S L, Li B. Study on safety of the intended functionality technology for E/E system of road vehicle. China Standardization, 2016, 1: 58--62. Google Scholar

[71] Aycard O, Baig Q, Bota S, et al. Intersection safety using lidar and stereo vision sensors. In: Proceedings of IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Baden, 2011. 863--869. Google Scholar

[72] Zeng S Q, Tong W, Mudalige U P. Deeply integrated fusion architecture for automated driving systems. US Patent, 10 395 144, 2019-08-27. Google Scholar

[73] Murali V N, Kadetotad S, Levine D. Probabilistic inference using weighted-integrals-and-sums-by-hashing for object tracking. US Patent, 10 229 363, 2019-03-12. Google Scholar

[74] Wang X S, Zhu M X, Sun P. peed control multi-target optimized car following algorithm of automatic driving vehicle. CN Patent, 109 709 956, 2019-05-03. Google Scholar

[75] Jiang Z, Fu Y, Li Y Z. Feedback-based control model generation for an autonomous vehicle. US Patent, 10 449 958, 2019-10-22. Google Scholar

[76] Liu J X, Li J, Ding F, et al. Vehicle driving system and method. CN Patent, 109 032 132, 2018-12-18. Google Scholar

[77] Naissa C, Casey B, Shekoufeh Q, et al. Evaluating risk factors of proposed vehicle maneuvers using external and internal data. EP Patent, 3 627 388, 2020-03-25. Google Scholar

[78] Yao X W, Chen J H. Safety assistant driving system and control method. CN Patent, 107 215 332, 2017-09-29. Google Scholar

[79] Sugioka I, Frasher D, Norberg S. A seat system for autonomous vehicles. EP Patent, 3 153 346, 2017-04-12. Google Scholar

[80] Coelingh E, Solyom S. All aboard the robotic road train. IEEE Spectrum, 2012,49:34-39. Google Scholar

[81] Fujishiro R. Drive support apparatus. US Patent, 9 478 135, 2016-10-25. Google Scholar

[82] Mueller M, Mielenz H. Method for assisting a driver of a motor vehicle. EP Patent, 2 582 554, 2015-08-12. Google Scholar

[83] Najjar Y P, Pindolia S K. System and method for collision mitigation and avoidance in autonomous vehicle. US Patent, 2018 0319 393, 2018-11-08. Google Scholar

[84] Baumann K H, Fehring M, Justen R, et al. Method for a safety system in a vehicle. US Patent, 2009 0210 114, 2009-08-20. Google Scholar

[85] Mobileye. Implementing the RSS model on NHTSA pre-crash scenarios Version 1. 2019. Google Scholar

[86] Li H Y, Zhang K. Driverless car lane change safety discrimination method and device and storage medium. CN Patent, 109 887 321, 2019-06-14. Google Scholar

[87] Harda P, Nilsson J. Method and system for safe steering assistance in a vehicle. EP Patent, 3 106 369, 2016-12-21. Google Scholar

[88] James M R, Prokhorov D V. Autonomous vehicle interaction with external environment. US Patent, 9 855 890, 2018-01-02. Google Scholar

[89] Wang B Z, Gong J Z, Liu X G. Research on network security and standardization for connected vehicles. Inform Technol Standard, 2018, 1: 22--27. Google Scholar

[90] Zheng Y, Zhao X G, Zhong Z J. The vehicle network topology. CN Patent, 109 167 712, 2019-01-08. Google Scholar

[91] Konrardy B, Christensen S T, Hayward G. Autonomous vehicle component malfunction impact assessment. US Patent, 10 168 703, 2019-01-01. Google Scholar

[92] Li C D, Song H J, Zheng S P. Automobile communication network system and automobile. CN Patent, 201 619 537, 2010-11-03. Google Scholar

[93] Chai Z X, Xie T X. Autonomous Driving Changes The Future. Beijing: China Machine Press, 2018. Google Scholar