logo

Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 62 , Issue 26 : 3023-3039(2017) https://doi.org/10.1360/N972017-00253

Can we have direct access to other minds by “motor resonance”? A critical reassessment

More info
  • ReceivedMar 5, 2017
  • AcceptedJun 7, 2017
  • PublishedJul 25, 2017

Abstract


Funded by

国家社会科学基金(16CZX015)

国家社会科学基金(14BSHO74)

国家自然科学基金(31600929)

国家自然科学基金(81472163)

江苏省高校哲学社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(2015JDXM001)


References

[1] Premack D, Woodruff G. Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?. Behav Brain Sci, 1978, 1: 515-526 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Goldman A I. Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience of Mindreading. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Google Scholar

[3] Apperly I. Mindreaders: The Cognitive Basis of “Theory of Mind”. New York: Psychology Press, 2012. Google Scholar

[4] Rizzolatti G, Fadiga L, Matelli M, et al. Localization of grasp representations in humans by PET: 1. Observation versus execution. Exp Brain Res, 1996, 111: 246–252. Google Scholar

[5] Gallese V, Fadiga L, Fogassi L, et al. Action recognition in the premotor cortex. Brain, 1996, 119: 593-609 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Iacoboni M. Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others. New York: Picador, 2009. Google Scholar

[7] Rizzolatti G, Craighero L. THE MIRROR-NEURON SYSTEM. Annu Rev Neurosci, 2004, 27: 169-192 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Uithol S, van Rooij I, Bekkering H, et al. Understanding motor resonance. Social Neuroscience, 2011, 6: 388-397 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[9] Iacoboni M, Molnar-Szakacs I, Gallese V, et al. Grasping the Intentions of Others with One's Own Mirror Neuron System. PLoS Biol, 2005, 3: e79 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[10] Hickok G. Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans. J Cognitive Neuroscience, 2009, 21: 1229-1243 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[11] Gazzaniga M S, Ivry R B, Mangun G R. The Cognitive Neurosciences: The Biology of The Mind. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2013. Google Scholar

[12] Prinz W. A common coding approach to perception and action. In: Neumann O, Prinz W, eds. Relationships Between Perception and Action: Current Approaches. Heidelberg: Springer, 1990. 167–201. Google Scholar

[13] Iacoboni M. Cortical Mechanisms of Human Imitation. Science, 1999, 286: 2526-2528 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Rizzolatti G, Fogassi L, Gallese V. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the understanding and imitation of action.. Nat Rev Neurosci, 2001, 2: 661-670 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[15] Rizzolatti G, Fogassi L. The mirror mechanism: Recent findings and perspectives. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2014, 369: 53–74. Google Scholar

[16] Goldman A, de Vignemont F. Is social cognition embodied?. Trends Cognitive Sci, 2009, 13: 154-159 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[17] Gallese V. Neuroscience and phenomenology. Phenomenol Mind, 2011, 1: 33–48. Google Scholar

[18] Catmur C. Understanding intentions from actions: Direct perception, inference, and the roles of mirror and mentalizing systems. Consciousness Cognition, 2015, 36: 426-433 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[19] Prinz W, Beisert M, Herwig A. Action Science: Foundations of an Emerging Discipline. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013. Google Scholar

[20] Rizzolatti G, Sinigaglia C. The functional role of the parieto-frontal mirror circuit: interpretations and misinterpretations. Nat Rev Neurosci, 2010, 11: 264-274 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[21] Umiltà M A, Kohler E, Gallese V, et al. I know what you are doing: A neurophysiological study. Neuron, 2001, 31: 155–165. Google Scholar

[22] Caspers S, Zilles K, Laird A R, et al. ALE meta-analysis of action observation and imitation in the human brain. NeuroImage, 2010, 50: 1148-1167 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[23] Grosbras M H, Beaton S, Eickhoff S B. Brain regions involved in human movement perception: A quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis. Hum Brain Mapp, 2012, 33: 431-454 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[24] Molenberghs P, Cunnington R, Mattingley J B. Brain regions with mirror properties: A meta-analysis of 125 human fMRI studies. NeuroSci BioBehaval Rev, 2012, 36: 341-349 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[25] Dalla Volta R, Fasano F, Cerasa A, et al. Walking indoors, walking outdoors: An fMRI study. Front Psychol, 2015, 6: 1502. Google Scholar

[26] Fadiga L, Fogassi L, Pavesi G, et al. Motor facilitation during action observation: A magnetic stimulation study. J Neurophysiol, 1995, 73: 2608–2611. Google Scholar

[27] Wang Y, Hamilton A F. Social top-down response modulation (storm): A model of the control of mimicry in social interaction. Front Hum Neurosci, 2012, 6: 153. Google Scholar

[28] Wang Y, Zang Y Y, Chen W. From “chameleon effect” to “mirror neurons” and to “Echopraxia”: Human mimicry comes from social interaction (in Chinese). Adv Psychol Sci, 2011, 19: 916–924 [汪寅, 臧寅垠, 陈巍. 从“变色龙效应”到“镜像神经元”再到“模仿过多症”——作为社会交流产物的人类无意识模仿. 心理科学进展, 2011, 19: 916–924]. Google Scholar

[29] Michael J, Sandberg K, Skewes J, et al. Continuous theta-burst stimulation demonstrates a causal role of premotor homunculus in action understanding. Psychol Sci, 2014, 25: 608–611. Google Scholar

[30] Ando A, Salatino A, Giromini L, et al. Embodied simulation and ambiguous stimuli: The role of the mirror neuron system. Brain Res, 2015, 1629: 135-142 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[31] Heilman K M, Rothi L J, Valenstein E. Two forms of ideomotor apraxia. Neurology, 1982, 32: 342-342 CrossRef Google Scholar

[32] Pazzaglia M, Smania N, Corato E, et al. Neural Underpinnings of Gesture Discrimination in Patients with Limb Apraxia. J Neuroscience, 2008, 28: 3030-3041 CrossRef Google Scholar

[33] Liberman A M, Mattingly I G. The motor theory of speech perception revised. Cognition, 1985, 21: 1-36 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Blackwell A, Bates E. Inducing Agrammatic Profiles in Normals: Evidence for the Selective Vulnerability of Morphology under Cognitive Resource Limitation. J Cognitive Neuroscience, 1995, 7: 228-257 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[35] Dick F, Bates E, Wulfeck B, et al. Language deficits, localization, and grammar: Evidence for a distributive model of language breakdown in aphasic patients and neurologically intact individuals.. Psychological Rev, 2001, 108: 759-788 CrossRef Google Scholar

[36] Marino B F, Sirianni M, Volta R D, et al. Viewing photos and reading nouns of natural graspable objects similarly modulate motor responses. Front Hum Neurosci, 2014, 8: 968. Google Scholar

[37] American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Google Scholar

[38] Cattaneo L, Fabbri-Destro M, Boria S, et al. Impairment of actions chains in autism and its possible role in intention understanding. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2007, 104: 17825-17830 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[39] Chien H Y, Gau S S F, Hsu Y C, et al. Altered Cortical Thickness and Tract Integrity of the Mirror Neuron System and Associated Social Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism Res, 2015, 8: 694-708 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[40] Perkins T J, Bittar R G, McGillivray J A, et al. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation. J Clinical Neuroscience, 2015, 22: 664-669 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[41] Hamilton A F C. Reflecting on the mirror neuron system in autism: A systematic review of current theories. Dev Cognitive Neuroscience, 2013, 3: 91-105 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[42] Pan W, Chen W, Wang Y, et al. The myth of broken mirror theory of autism: Origins, problems and prospects (in Chinese). Adv Psychological Sci, 2016, 24: 958-973 CrossRef Google Scholar

[43] Pineda J O A, Oberman L M. What goads cigarette smokers to smoke? Neural adaptation and the mirror neuron system. Brain Res, 2006, 1121: 128-135 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[44] Mehta U M, Waghmare A V, Thirthalli J, et al. Is the human mirror neuron system plastic? Evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Asian J Psychiatry, 2015, 17: 71-77 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[45] Bisio A, Sciutti A, Nori F, et al. Motor contagion during human-human and human-robot interaction. PLoS One, 2014, 9: 28–35. Google Scholar

[46] Buccino G, Lui F, Canessa N, et al. Neural Circuits Involved in the Recognition of Actions Performed by Nonconspecifics: An fMRI Study. J Cognitive Neuroscience, 2004, 16: 114-126 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[47] Ferrari P F, Rozzi S, Fogassi L. Mirror Neurons Responding to Observation of Actions Made with Tools in Monkey Ventral Premotor Cortex. J Cognitive Neuroscience, 2005, 17: 212-226 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[48] Press C, Gillmeister H, Heyes C. Sensorimotor experience enhances automatic imitation of robotic action. Proc R Soc B-Biol Sci, 2007, 274: 2509-2514 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[49] Gazzola V, Rizzolatti G, Wicker B, et al. The anthropomorphic brain: The mirror neuron system responds to human and robotic actions. NeuroImage, 2007, 35: 1674-1684 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[50] Sciutti A, Bisio A, Nori F, et al. Measuring Human-Robot Interaction Through Motor Resonance. Int J Soc Robotics, 2012, 4: 223-234 CrossRef Google Scholar

[51] Tai Y F, Scherfler C, Brooks D J, et al. The human premotor cortex is “mirror” only for biological actions. Curr Biol, 2004, 14: 117–120. Google Scholar

[52] Cattaneo L, Maule F, Barchiesi G, et al. The motor system resonates to the distal goal of observed actions: testing the inverse pliers paradigm in an ecological setting. Exp Brain Res, 2013, 231: 37-49 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[53] Umiltà M A, Intskirveli I, Grammont F, et al. When pliers become fingers in the monkey motor system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2008, 105: 2209–2213. Google Scholar

[54] Aglioti S M, Cesari P, Romani M, et al. Action anticipation and motor resonance in elite basketball players. Nat Neurosci, 2008, 11: 1109-1116 CrossRef Google Scholar

[55] Del Percio C, Infarinato F, Iacoboni M, et al. Movement-related desynchronization of alpha rhythms is lower in athletes than non-athletes: A high-resolution EEG study. Clinical NeuroPhysiol, 2010, 121: 482-491 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[56] Kim Y T, Seo J H, Song H J, et al. Neural correlates related to action observation in expert archers. Behavioural Brain Res, 2011, 223: 342-347 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[57] Calvo-Merino B, Grèzes J, Glaser D E, et al. Seeing or Doing? Influence of Visual and Motor Familiarity in Action Observation. Curr Biol, 2006, 16: 1905-1910 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[58] Press C, Catmur C, Cook R, et al. fMRI Evidence of ‘Mirror’ Responses to Geometric Shapes. PLoS ONE, 2012, 7: e51934 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[59] Landmann C, Landi S M, Grafton S T, et al. fMRI Supports the Sensorimotor Theory of Motor Resonance. PLoS ONE, 2011, 6: e26859 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[60] Ferrari P F, Tramacere A, Simpson E A, et al. Mirror neurons through the lens of epigenetics. Trends Cognitive Sci, 2013, 17: 450-457 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[61] Cook R, Bird G, Catmur C, et al. Mirror neurons: From origin to function. Behav Brain Sci, 2014, 37: 177-192 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[62] Ledoux J E. Synaptic Self: How Our Brains Become Who We Are. London: Penguin, 2003. Google Scholar

[63] Heyes C. Tinbergen on mirror neurons. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2014, 369: 53–74. Google Scholar

[64] Strack F, Martin L L, Stepper S. Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: A nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis.. J Personality Social Psychology, 1988, 54: 768-777 CrossRef Google Scholar

[65] Ekman P. Emotions Revealed: Understanding Faces and Feelings. London: Phoenix, 2004. Google Scholar

[66] Wood A, Rychlowska M, Korb S, et al. Fashioning the Face: Sensorimotor Simulation Contributes to Facial Expression Recognition. Trends Cognitive Sci, 2016, 20: 227-240 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[67] Nagy E, Pilling K, Orvos H, et al. Imitation of tongue protrusion in human neonates: Specificity of the response in a large sample.. Dev Psychology, 2013, 49: 1628-1638 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[68] Meltzoff A, Moore M. Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 1977, 198: 74-78 CrossRef Google Scholar

[69] Field T M, Woodson R, Greenberg R, et al. Discrimination and imitation of facial expression by neonates. Science, 1982, 218: 179-181 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[70] Meltzoff A N, Decety J. What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 2003, 358: 491-500 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[71] Ferrari P F, Visalberghi E, Paukner A, et al. Neonatal Imitation in Rhesus Macaques. PLoS Biol, 2006, 4: e302 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[72] Ferrari P F, Vanderwert R E, Paukner A, et al. Distinct EEG Amplitude Suppression to Facial Gestures as Evidence for a Mirror Mechanism in Newborn Monkeys. J Cognitive Neuroscience, 2012, 24: 1165-1172 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[73] Barchiesi G, Cattaneo L. Early and late motor responses to action observation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 2013, 8: 711-719 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[74] Ubaldi S, Barchiesi G, Cattaneo L. Bottom-Up and Top-Down Visuomotor Responses to Action Observation. Cerebral Cortex, 2013, 25: 1032-1041 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[75] Liepelt R, Cramon D Y V, Brass M. What is matched in direct matching? Intention attribution modulates motor priming.. J Exp Psychology-Human Perception Performance, 2008, 34: 578-591 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[76] Caramazza A, Anzellotti S, Strnad L, et al. Embodied Cognition and Mirror Neurons: A Critical Assessment. Annu Rev Neurosci, 2014, 37: 1-15 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[77] Liuzza M T, Candidi M, Sforza A L, et al. Harm avoiders suppress motor resonance to observed immoral actions. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci, 2015, 10: 72-77 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[78] Obhi S S, Hogeveen J, Pascual-Leone A. Resonating with Others: The Effects of Self-Construal Type on Motor Cortical Output. J Neuroscience, 2011, 31: 14531-14535 CrossRef Google Scholar

[79] Hogeveen J, Obhi S S. Social Interaction Enhances Motor Resonance for Observed Human Actions. J Neuroscience, 2012, 32: 5984-5989 CrossRef Google Scholar

[80] Hogeveen J, Inzlicht M, Obhi S S. Power changes how the brain responds to others.. J Exp Psychology-General, 2014, 143: 755-762 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[81] Prinsen J, Bernaerts S, Wang Y, et al. Direct eye contact enhances mirroring of others’ movements: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Neuropsychologia, 2017, 95: 111-118 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[82] Wang Y, Hamilton A F C. Why does gaze enhance mimicry? Placing gaze-mimicry effects in relation to other gaze phenomena. Q J Exp Psychology, 2013, 67: 747-762 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[83] Wang Y, Newport R, Hamilton A F C. Eye contact enhances mimicry of intransitive hand movements. Biol Lett, 2011, 7: 7-10 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[84] Sartori L, Cavallo A, Bucchioni G, et al. Corticospinal excitability is specifically modulated by the social dimension of observed actions. Exp Brain Res, 2011, 211: 557-568 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[85] Wang Y, Ramsey R, de C. Hamilton A F. The Control of Mimicry by Eye Contact Is Mediated by Medial Prefrontal Cortex. J Neuroscience, 2011, 31: 12001-12010 CrossRef Google Scholar

[86] Christov-Moore L, Iacoboni M. Self-other resonance, its control and prosocial inclinations: Brain-behavior relationships. Hum Brain Mapp, 2016, 37: 1544-1558 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[87] Amoruso L, Urgesi C. Contextual modulation of motor resonance during the observation of everyday actions. NeuroImage, 2016, 134: 74-84 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[88] Nelissen K, Borra E, Gerbella M, et al. Action Observation Circuits in the Macaque Monkey Cortex. J Neuroscience, 2011, 31: 3743-3756 CrossRef Google Scholar

[89] Ferrari P F, Bonini L, Fogassi L. From monkey mirror neurons to primate behaviours: possible 'direct' and 'indirect' pathways. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 2009, 364: 2311-2323 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[90] Borra E, Gerbella M, Rozzi S, et al. Anatomical Evidence for the Involvement of the Macaque Ventrolateral Prefrontal Area 12r in Controlling Goal-Directed Actions. J Neuroscience, 2011, 31: 12351-12363 CrossRef Google Scholar

[91] Gerbella M, Belmalih A, Borra E, et al. Cortical connections of the anterior (F5a) subdivision of the macaque ventral premotor area F5. Brain Struct Funct, 2011, 216: 43-65 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[92] Gerbella M, Borra E, Tonelli S, et al. Connectional heterogeneity of the ventral part of the macaque area 46. Cereb Cortex, 2012, s96. Google Scholar

[93] Wilson M, Knoblich G. The Case for Motor Involvement in Perceiving Conspecifics.. Psychological Bull, 2005, 131: 460-473 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[94] Kohler E, Keysers C, Umiltà M A, et al. Hearing Sounds, Understanding Actions: Action Representation in Mirror Neurons. Science, 2002, 297: 846-848 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[95] Bonini L, Maranesi M, Livi A, et al. Ventral Premotor Neurons Encoding Representations of Action during Self and Others’ Inaction. Curr Biol, 2014, 24: 1611-1614 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[96] Csibra G. Action mirroring and action understanding: An alternative account. In: Haggard P, Rossetti Y, Kawato, eds. Sensory Motor Foundations of Higher Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. 435–459. Google Scholar

[97] Fogassi L, Ferrari P F, Gesierich B, et al. Parietal Lobe: From Action Organization to Intention Understanding. Science, 2005, 308: 662-667 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[98] Gallese V. Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends Cognitive Sci, 1998, 2: 493-501 CrossRef Google Scholar

[99] Churchland P S. Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells Us About Morality. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. Google Scholar

[100] Sliwa J, Freiwald W A. A dedicated network for social interaction processing in the primate brain. Science, 2017, 356: 745-749 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[101] Pineda J A. Sensorimotor cortex as a critical component of an “extended” mirror neuron system: Does it solve the development, correspondence, and control problems in mirroring? Behav Brain Funct, 2008, 4: 47. Google Scholar

[102] Bonini L. The Extended Mirror Neuron Network. Neuroscientist, 2017, 23: 56-67 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[103] Grossman E D, Battelli L, Pascual-Leone A. Repetitive TMS over posterior STS disrupts perception of biological motion. Vision Res, 2005, 45: 2847-2853 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[104] Mitchell J P, Banaji M R, Macrae C N. The Link between Social Cognition and Self-referential Thought in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex. J Cognitive Neuroscience, 2005, 17: 1306-1315 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[105] Brass M, Schmitt R M, Spengler S, et al. Investigating Action Understanding: Inferential Processes versus Action Simulation. Curr Biol, 2007, 17: 2117-2121 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[106] Van Overwalle F, Baetens K. Understanding others' actions and goals by mirror and mentalizing systems: A meta-analysis. NeuroImage, 2009, 48: 564-584 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[107] Halsband U, Schmitt J, Weyers M, et al. Recognition and imitation of pantomimed motor acts after unilateral parietal and premotor lesions: a perspective on apraxia. Neuropsychologia, 2001, 39: 200-216 CrossRef Google Scholar

[108] Negri G A L, Rumiati R I, Zadini A, et al. What is the role of motor simulation in action and object recognition? Evidence from apraxia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 2007, 24: 795-816 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[109] Hickok G. The Myth of Mirror Neurons: The Real Neuroscience of Communication and Cognition. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2014. Google Scholar

[110] Massaro D W, Cohen M M. Categorical or continuous speech perception: A new test. Speech Communication, 1983, 2: 15-35 CrossRef Google Scholar

[111] Gracco V L, Abbs J H. Variant and invariant characteristics of speech movements. Exp Brain Res, 1986, 65: 156–166. Google Scholar

[112] Massaro D, Stork D. Speech Recognition and Sensory Integration. Am Sci, 1998, 86: 236-244 CrossRef Google Scholar

[113] Hill A T, Fitzgibbon B M, Arnold S L, et al. Modulation of putative mirror neuron activity by both positively and negatively valenced affective stimuli: A TMS study. Behavioural Brain Res, 2013, 249: 116-123 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[114] Fitzgibbon B M, Kirkovski M, Fornito A, et al. Emotion processing fails to modulate putative mirror neuron response to trained visuomotor associations. Neuropsychologia, 2016, 84: 7-13 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[115] Rives Bogart K, Matsumoto D. Facial mimicry is not necessary to recognize emotion: Facial expression recognition by people with Moebius syndrome. Social Neuroscience, 2010, 5: 241-251 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[116] Calder A J, Keane J, Cole J, et al. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION BY PEOPLE WITH MÖBIUS SYNDROME. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 2000, 17: 73-87 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[117] Lamm C, Majdandžić J. The role of shared neural activations, mirror neurons, and morality in empathy – A critical comment. NeuroSci Res, 2015, 90: 15-24 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[118] Mukamel R, Fried I. Human Intracranial Recordings and Cognitive Neuroscience. Annu Rev Psychol, 2012, 63: 511-537 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[119] Li Y, Vanni-Mercier G, Isnard J, et al. The neural dynamics of reward value and risk coding in the human orbitofrontal cortex. Brain, 2016, 139: 1295-1309 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[120] Avenanti A, Candidi M, Urgesi C. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: Beyond correlational evidence. Front Hum Neurosci, 2013, 7: 185. Google Scholar

[121] Enticott P G, Kennedy H A, Rinehart N J, et al. Interpersonal motor resonance in autism spectrum disorder: Evidence against a global “mirror system” deficit. Front Hum Neurosci, 2013, 7: 218. Google Scholar

[122] Andrews S C, Enticott P G, Hoy K E, et al. No evidence for mirror system dysfunction in schizophrenia from a multimodal TMS/EEG study. Psychiatry Res, 2015, 228: 431-440 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[123] Sowden S, Koehne S, Catmur C, et al. Intact Automatic Imitation and Typical Spatial Compatibility in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Challenging the Broken Mirror Theory. Autism Res, 2016, 9: 292-300 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[124] Casartelli L, Molteni M. Where there is a goal, there is a way: What, why and how the parieto-frontal mirror network can mediate imitative behaviours. NeuroSci BioBehaval Rev, 2014, 47: 177-193 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[125] Ray E, Heyes C. Imitation in infancy: the wealth of the stimulus. Dev Sci, 2011, 14: 92-105 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[126] Jones S S. The development of imitation in infancy. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 2009, 364: 2325-2335 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[127] Oostenbroek J, Suddendorf T, Nielsen M, et al. Comprehensive Longitudinal Study Challenges the Existence of Neonatal Imitation in Humans. Curr Biol, 2016, 26: 1334-1338 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[128] Heyes C. Imitation: Not in Our Genes. Curr Biol, 2016, 26: R412-R414 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[129] Simpson E A, Murray L, Paukner A, et al. The mirror neuron system as revealed through neonatal imitation: presence from birth, predictive power and evidence of plasticity. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 2014, 369: 20130289-20130289 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[130] Fitzgibbon B M, Fitzgerald P B, Enticott P G. An examination of the influence of visuomotor associations on interpersonal motor resonance. Neuropsychologia, 2014, 56: 439-446 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[131] Cannon E N, Yoo K H, Vanderwert R E, et al. Action Experience, More than Observation, Influences Mu Rhythm Desynchronization. PLoS ONE, 2014, 9: e92002 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[132] Ferrari P F, Rizzolatti G. Mirror neuron research: the past and the future. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 2014, 369: 20130169-20130169 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[133] Paulus M. How and why do infants imitate? An ideomotor approach to social and imitative learning in infancy (and beyond). Psychon Bull Rev, 2014, 21: 1139-1156 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[134] Keysers C, Gazzola V. Hebbian learning and predictive mirror neurons for actions, sensations and emotions. Philos Trans R Soc B-Biol Sci, 2014, 369: 20130175-20130175 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

  • Figure1

    (a) The classical frontal-parietal circuit of mirror neuron system (in charcoal); (b) the right panel displays the extended mirror neuron system. Those lines connect each brain regions display reciprocal neural pathways between them. The triple black lines are verfied by current mirror neuron system researchs. The parallel black lines indicate the presumable pathways based on past anatomy resarchs

qqqq

Contact and support