SCIENTIA SINICA Informationis, Volume 48 , Issue 6 : 688-700(2018) https://doi.org/10.1360/N112018-00097

Low-temperature epitaxial technology for flexible optoelectronic devices

More info
  • ReceivedApr 20, 2018
  • AcceptedApr 27, 2018
  • PublishedJun 13, 2018


Funded by

国家重点基础研究发展计划 (973)(2015CB351900)






[1] Sher C W, Chen K J, Lin C C. Large-area, uniform white light LED source on a flexible substrate. Opt Express, 2015, 23: A1167-1178 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[2] Hu J, Li L, Lin H. Flexible integrated photonics: where materials, mechanics and optics meet [Invited]. Opt Mater Express, 2013, 3: 1313-1331 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Chen Y, Li H, Li M. Flexible and tunable silicon photonic circuits on plastic substrates. Sci Rep, 2012, 2: 622 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[4] Chang R F, Zhang Y H, Song J Z. Recent advances in mechanics of stretchable desingns. Chin J Sild Mech, 2016, 37: 95--106. Google Scholar

[5] Chang R F, Feng X, Chen W Q. Mechanics designs for stretchable inorganic electronics. Chin Sci Bull (Chin Ver), 2015, 60: 2079-2090 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Feng X, Lu B W, Wu J, et al. Review on stretchable and flexible inorganic electronics. Acta Phys Sin, 2014, 63: 014201. Google Scholar

[7] Park S, Ahn J, Feng X, et al. Theoretical and experimental studies of bending of inorganic electronic materials on plastic substrates. Adv Funct Mater, 2010, 18: 2673--2684. Google Scholar

[8] Bolat S, Sisman Z, Okyay A K. Demonstration of flexible thin film transistors with GaN channels. Appl Phys Lett, 2016, 109: 233504 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[9] Kim H, Ohta J, Ueno K. Fabrication of full-color GaN-based light-emitting diodes on nearly lattice-matched flexible metal foils. Sci Rep, 2017, 7: 2112 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[10] Lee C H, Kim Y J, Hong Y J. Flexible inorganic nanostructure light-emitting diodes fabricated on graphene films.. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 4614-4619 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[11] Nakamura S. The Roles of Structural Imperfections in InGaN-Based Blue Light-Emitting Diodes and Laser Diodes. Science, 1998, 281: 956-961 CrossRef Google Scholar

[12] Li D, Sun X, Song H. Realization of a high-performance GaN UV detector by nanoplasmonic enhancement.. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 845-849 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[13] Shen L, Heikman S, Moran B. AlGaN/AlN/GaN high-power microwave HEMT. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2001, 22: 457-459 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[14] Maruska H P, Tietjen J J. The Preparation and Properties of Vapor-Deposited Single-Crystal GaN. Appl Phys Lett, 1969, 15: 327-329 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[15] Amano H, Sawaki N, Akasaki I. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of a high quality GaN film using an AlN buffer layer. Appl Phys Lett, 1986, 48: 353-355 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[16] Amano H, Kito M, Hiramatsu K. P-Type Conduction in Mg-Doped GaN Treated with Low-Energy Electron Beam Irradiation (LEEBI). Jpn J Appl Phys, 1989, 28: L2112-L2114 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[17] Nakamura S, Mukai T, Senoh M. Thermal Annealing Effects on P-Type Mg-Doped GaN Films. Jpn J Appl Phys, 1992, 31: L139-L142 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[18] Nakamura S, Iwasa N, Senoh M. Hole Compensation Mechanism of P-Type GaN Films. Jpn J Appl Phys, 1992, 31: 1258-1266 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[19] Nakamura S, Pearton S, Fasol G. The Blue Laser Diode: the Complete Story. Berlin: Springer, 2000. Google Scholar

[20] Wu C, Yu J, E Y. Model for Low-Temperature Growth of Gallium Nitride. Cryst Growth Des, 2016, 16: 5023-5029 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Yu K M, Ting M, Novikov S V. Effects of native defects on properties of low temperature grown, non-stoichiomtric gallium nitride. J Phys D-Appl Phys, 2015, 48: 385101 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Yang W, Wang W, Liu Z. Effect of AlN buffer layer thickness on the properties of GaN films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Mater Sci Semiconductor Processing, 2015, 39: 499-505 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Sato K, Ohta J, Inoue S. Room-Temperature Epitaxial Growth of High Quality AlN on SiC by Pulsed Sputtering Deposition. Appl Phys Express, 2009, 2: 011003 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[24] Martin C, Butcher K S A, Wintrebert-Fouquet M, et al. Modeling and experimental analysis of RPCVD based nitride film growth. In: Proceedings of Integrated Optoelectronic Devices, San Jose, 2008. 689407. Google Scholar

[25] Qin F-W. PEMOCVD method with RHEED in situ monitoring and low temperature growth of GaN based films. Dissertation for Ph.D. Degree. Dalian: Dalian University of Technology, 2004. Google Scholar

[26] Franz G. Low Pressure Plasmas and Microstructuring Technology. Berlin: Springer, 2009. Google Scholar

[27] Wang W, Yang H, Li G. Achieve high-quality GaN films on La0.3Sr1.7AlTaO6 (LSAT) substrates by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. CrystEngComm, 2013, 15: 2669-2674 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Zhong M M, Qin F W, Liu Y M. Low-temperature growth of high c-orientated crystalline GaN films on amorphous Ni/glass substrates with ECR-PEMOCVD. J Alloys Compd, 2014, 583: 39-42 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Shon J W, Ohta J, Ueno K, et al. Fabrication of full-color InGaN-based light-emitting diodes on amorphous substrates by pulsed sputtering. Sci Rep, 2014, 4: 5325. Google Scholar

[30] Shon J W, Ohta J, Ueno K. Structural properties of GaN films grown on multilayer graphene films by pulsed sputtering. Appl Phys Express, 2014, 7: 085502 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[31] Yu J, Wang J, Lu B. Characteristics of hexagonal c-oriented titanium film as the template for GaN epitaxy on glass substrate by electron beam evaporation. Thin Solid Films, 2017, 624: 160-166 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[32] Yasui K, Hoshino S, Akahane T. Epitaxial growth of AlN films on Si substrates by ECR plasma assisted MOCVD under controlled plasma conditions in afterglow region. Appl Surf Sci, 2000, 159-160: 462-467 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[33] Zhi A B, Qin F W, Zhang D. Low-temperature growth of highly c-oriented InN films on glass substrates with ECR-PEMOCVD. Vacuum, 2012, 86: 1102-1106 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[34] Fu S, Chen J, Zhang H. Characterizations of GaN film growth by ECR plasma chemical vapor deposition. J Cryst Growth, 2009, 311: 3325-3331 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[35] Kao C C, Kuo H C, Yeh K F. Light-Output Enhancement of Nano-Roughened GaN Laser Lift-Off Light-Emitting Diodes Formed by ICP Dry Etching. IEEE Photon Technol Lett, 2007, 19: 849-851 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[36] Chang-Zheng S, Jin-Bo Z, Bing X. Vertical and Smooth, etching of InP by Cl$_{2}$/CH$_{4}$/Ar Inductively Coupled Plasma at Room Temperature. Chin Phys Lett, 2003, 20: 1312-1314 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[37] Wu T, Hao Z B, Tang G. Dry Etching Characteristics of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructures Using Inductively Coupled H2/Cl2, Ar/Cl2 and BCl3/Cl2 Plasmas. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2003, 42: L257-L259 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[38] Martinu L, Poitras D. Plasma deposition of optical films and coatings: A review. J Vacuum Sci Tech A-Vacuum Surfs Films, 2000, 18: 2619-2645 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Wei P, Li X, Li T. Surface passivation of In$_{0.83}$Ga$_{0.17}$As photodiode with high-quality SiN layer fabricated by ICPCVD at the lower temperature. Infrared Phys Tech, 2014, 62: 13-17 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[40] Barankin M D, Gonzalez II E, Ladwig A M. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2007, 91: 924-930 CrossRef Google Scholar

[41] Kyrylov O, Cremer R, Neuschütz D. Correlation between plasma conditions and properties of (Ti,Al)N coatings deposited by PECVD. Surf Coatings Tech, 2002, 151-152: 359-364 CrossRef Google Scholar

[42] Butcher K S A, Kemp B W, Hristov I B, et al. Gallium nitride film growth using a plasma based migration enhanced afterglow chemical vapor deposition system. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2012, 51: 1--2. Google Scholar

[43] Luo Y, Wang J, Hao Z B, et al. Epitaxial growth device and method of compound semiconductor based on ICP. Patent No. 201410053424.4.. Google Scholar

[44] Wu C, Wang J, Zhang W. Modeling and simulation of ion-filtered inductively coupled plasma using argon plasma. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2015, 54: 036101 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[45] Yu W Y, Wang J, Wu C, et al. Simulation of nitrogen plasma in ion-filtered ICP chamber. International Nano-Optoelectronic Workshop, iNOW, 2017. Google Scholar

[46] Yu J, Wang L, Hao Z. Theoretical study on critical thickness of heteroepitaxial h-BN on hexagonal crystals. J Cryst Growth, 2017, 467: 126-131 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[47] Yu J, Hao Z, Li L. Influence of dislocation density on internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based semiconductors. AIP Adv, 2017, 7: 035321 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[48] Yu K M, Ting M, Novikov S V. Effects of native defects on properties of low temperature grown, non-stoichiomtric gallium nitride. J Phys D-Appl Phys, 2015, 48: 385101 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Application scenarios of III-V semiconductor devices

  • Figure 2

    Schematic diagram of PSD low temperature epitaxial technology

  • Figure 3

    Schematic diagram of RPCVD [24]low temperature epitaxial technology

  • Figure 4

    Schematic diagram of ICP-MOVPE reaction cavity [43]

  • Figure 5

    Energy distribution of various nitrogen active particles and the relationship with GaN binding energy

  • Figure 6

    Comparison of the distribution of plasma in the ICP chamber and the IF-ICP chamber

  • Figure 7

    Relationship among surface roughness RMS, Raman E$~_{2}$ (TO) modal peak and NDL

  • Figure 8

    (a) Relationship between RF power and growth rate; (b) RF power and XRD swing curve

  • Figure 9

    The AFM test results within $~5~\mu~$m$\times~5~\mu~$m of the 3 samples of (a) 30 Pa RMS = 19.2 nm; (b) 10 Pa RMS = 19.4 nm; (c) 1 Pa RMS = 9.48 nm

  • Figure 10

    XRD test results of ICP-MOVPE growth samples

  • Figure 11

    EBSD test results of ICP-MOVPE growth samples

  • Table 1   Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the four major low-temperature plasma generationprotectłinebreak methods
    Pressure (Pa) $~10~\sim~100$ $~0.4~\sim~40$ $~0.1~\sim~0.7$ $~0.05~\sim~1$
    Constraint magnetic field B (T) 0 0 0.1 0.01
    Electron density $n~_{\rm~e}~$ (cm$~^{-3}~$) $~10~^{10}~$ $~10~^{11}\sim~10~^{12}~$ $~10~^{11}\sim~10~^{12}~$ $~10~^{12}\sim~10~^{14}~$
    Advantages The reaction chamber is simple to make Produce high density plasma; low cost; the plate type ICP can produce large area homogeneous plasma High plasma density; high energy conversion rate ($~>~95$% The external magnetic intensity required is much smaller than the ECR; it has very high plasma density
    Disadvantages The plasma density produced is low Energy coupling technology is difficult (plate type) There is the possibility of pattern jumping; it is difficult to produce large homogeneous plasma It is difficult to produce large area homogeneous plasma