Porous carbon matrix-encapsulated MnO in situ derived from metal-organic frameworks as advanced anode materials for Li-ion capacitors

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  • ReceivedMar 8, 2021
  • AcceptedJun 2, 2021
  • PublishedAug 6, 2021


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21905148)

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2019T120567,2017M612184)

the 1000-Talents Plan

the World-Class Discipline Program

and the Taishan Scholars Advantageous and Distinctive Discipline Program of Shandong province for supporting the research team of energy storage materials.


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21905148), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019T120567 and 2017M612184), the 1000-Talents Plan, the World-Class Discipline Program, and the Taishan Scholars Advantageous and Distinctive Discipline Program of Shandong province for supporting the research team of energy storage materials. The authors would like to express their gratitude to EasytoEdit for the expert linguistic services provided.

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Jiang S and Chen H conceived the idea and wrote the manuscript. Jiang S, Yun S and Zhang Z performed the experiments. Cao H designed the schematic diagram. Feng H helped with the energy storage performance test. All authors contributed to the general discussion.

Author information

Sipeng Jiang received his BE degree in 2014 from the Central South University of Forestry and Technology. He is a master degree candidate at Qingdao University, China. His research interests mainly focus on lithium-ion batteries and lithium-ion hybrid capacitors.

Haichao Chen is currently an associate professor at the Institute of Materials for Energy and Environment/School of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University. Prior to holding this position, he performed the research on preparation of high-performance active materials for supercapacitors at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. Now his main research interest focuses on the advanced electroactive materials for hybrid supercapacitors and Zn-ion batteries.


Supplementary information

Experimental details are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic illustration of the (a) formation process and (b) conversion mechanism from the ZnMn-MOF of the MnO/PC.

  • Figure 2

    (a) XRD patterns of the ZnMn-MOF and MnO/PC. FESEM images of the (b) ZnMn-MOF and (c) MnO/PC. (d–g) TEM images at different magnifications and (h) EDS mapping image of the MnO/PC.

  • Figure 3

    (a) TGA curve, (b) Raman spectrum, and (c) N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm and the corresponding pore size distribution curve of the MnO/PC. High-resolution (d) Mn 3s, (e) C 1s and (f) O 1s XPS spectra of the MnO/PC.

  • Figure 4

    (a) CV curves at different scan rates of the MnO/PC, and (b) relationship and linear fitting results of the cathodic and anodic peak currents and scan rate used to determine the b value. (c) Separation of the capacitive and diffusion-controlled contributions of MnO/PC at a scan rate of 0.5 mV s−1. (d) The percentage of capacitive and diffusion-controlled contributions at different scan rates.

  • Figure 5

    (a) Cycling performance at 0.1 A g−1 of MnO/PC and Mn/C, and the coulombic efficiency of MnO/PC. (b) GCD curves for the initial five cycles of the MnO/PC. (c) Rate performance at specific currents ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 A g−1 of MnO/PC and Mn/C. (d) Typical GCD curves at different specific currents of MnO/PC. (e) Long-term cycling performance at a high specific current of 0.3 A g−1 of MnO/PC and MnO/C.

  • Figure 6

    TEM images of the MnO/PC tested after being cycled at a specific current of 0.1 A g−1 for 50 cycles: (a) overall morphology, and enlarged images showing (a) erosion, (b) fracture and (c) pulverization of MnO particles.

  • Figure 7

    Schematic illustration of the mechanism for the porous structure of AC used to buffer the volume change of MnO during Li+ storage.

  • Figure 8

    (a) Schematic illustration of the structure, (b) CV curves at scan rates ranging from 0.5 to 10 mV s−1, (c) GCD curves at specific currents ranging from 0.1 to 30 A g−1, and (d) long-term cycling performance and the coulombic efficiency of the MnO/PC//AC LIC. (e) Photographs of an LIC cell used to drive 10 blue LEDs at different durations. (f) Ragone plots of the MnO/PC//AC LIC and previously reported LICs.


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