logo

SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 64 , Issue 12 : 2915-2925(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-021-1705-8

A novel dopant for spiro-OMeTAD towards efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

More info
  • ReceivedMar 3, 2021
  • AcceptedMay 10, 2021
  • PublishedJul 6, 2021

Abstract


Funding

the National Key Research and Development Plan(2019YFE0107200,2017YFE0131900)

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21875178,91963209)

and Foshan Xianhu Laboratory of the Advanced Energy Science and Technology Guangdong Laboratory(XHD2020-001,XHT2020-005)


Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan (2019YFE0107200 and 2017YFE0131900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21875178 and 91963209), and Foshan Xianhu Laboratory of the Advanced Energy Science and Technology Guangdong Laboratory (XHD2020-001 and XHT2020-005). The Analytical and Testing Centre of Wuhan University of Technology and Hubei Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Optoelectronic Material and Devices, Hubei University of Arts and Science is acknowledged for the XPS, XRD and SEM characterizations.


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Huang F and Bu T proposed and supervised the project. Lin Z conducted most of the experiments and analyzed the data as well as wrote the manuscript. Li J contributed to the experimental scheme and materials selection. Li H and Pan J performed the PL measurement. Mo Y and Wang C performed the stability test. Zhang XL, Zhong J, and Cheng YB revised the manuscript. All the authors contributed to the general discussion.


Author information

Zhipeng Lin received his BS degree from Wuhan University of Technology (WUT) in 2019. He is currently a master degree candidate at Wuhan University of Technology. His current research interest is focused on the field of perovskite solar cells.


Tongle Bu received his PhD from WUT in 2019. He joined Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) as a postdoctoral fellow in 2020. He is currently working on the scalable printing of efficient and stable perovskite solar cells and modules.


Fuzhi Huang received his PhD in chemistry (2009) from The University of Melbourne, Australia. Currently, he is a full professor at the State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, WUT. His research interest is developing new materials and techniques for high-efficiency organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells.


Supplementary data

Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


References

[1] Park NG. Perovskite solar cell: Research direction for next 10 years. ACS Energy Lett, 2019, 42983-2985 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] https://www.nrel.gov/pv/cell-efficiency.html. Google Scholar

[3] Kojima A, Teshima K, Shirai Y, et al. Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells. J Am Chem Soc, 2009, 1316050-6051 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[4] Green MA, Ho-Baillie A, Snaith HJ. The emergence of perovskite solar cells. Nat Photon, 2014, 8506-514 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[5] Xing G, Mathews N, Sun S, et al. Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3. Science, 2013, 342344-347 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[6] Stranks SD, Eperon GE, Grancini G, et al. Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber. Science, 2013, 342341-344 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[7] Jiang Q, Zhao Y, Zhang X, et al. Surface passivation of perovskite film for efficient solar cells. Nat Photonics, 2019, 13460-466 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[8] Saparov B, Mitzi DB. Organic–inorganic perovskites: Structural versatility for functional materials design. Chem Rev, 2016, 1164558-4596 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[9] Shao JY, Yu B, Wang YD, et al. In-situ electropolymerized polyamines as dopant-free hole-transporting materials for efficient and stable inverted perovskite solar cells. ACS Appl Energy Mater, 2020, 35058-5066 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Zhang L, Wu J, Li D, et al. Ladder-like conjugated polymers used as hole-transporting materials for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2019, 714473-14477 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Li D, Shao JY, Li Y, et al. New hole transporting materials for planar perovskite solar cells. Chem Commun, 2018, 541651-1654 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[12] Burschka J, Dualeh A, Kessler F, et al. Tris(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine)cobalt(III) as p-type dopant for organic semiconductors and its application in highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. J Am Chem Soc, 2011, 13318042-18045 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[13] Abate A, Leijtens T, Pathak S, et al. Lithium salts as “redox active” p-type dopants for organic semiconductors and their impact in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2013, 152572-2579 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[14] Habisreutinger SN, Noel NK, Snaith HJ, et al. Investigating the role of 4-tert butylpyridine in perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 71601079 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Wang S, Sina M, Parikh P, et al. Role of 4-tert-butylpyridine as a hole transport layer morphological controller in perovskite solar cells. Nano Lett, 2016, 165594-5600 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[16] Jena AK, Ikegami M, Miyasaka T. Severe morphological deformation of spiro-OMeTAD in (CH3NH3)PbI3 solar cells at high temperature. ACS Energy Lett, 2017, 21760-1761 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Liu Y, Hu Y, Zhang X, et al. Inhibited aggregation of lithium salt in spiro-OMeTAD toward highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Nano Energy, 2020, 70104483 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Hawash Z, Ono LK, Raga SR, et al. Air-exposure induced dopant redistribution and energy level shifts in spin-coated spiro-MEoTAD films. Chem Mater, 2015, 27562-569 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] Wang S, Huang Z, Wang X, et al. Unveiling the role of tBP–LiTFSI complexes in perovskite solar cells. J Am Chem Soc, 2018, 14016720-16730 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[20] Seo JY, Kim HS, Akin S, et al. Novel p-dopant toward highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. Energy Environ Sci, 2018, 112985-2992 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Li M, Wang ZK, Yang YG, et al. Copper salts doped spiro-ometad for high-performance perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2016, 61601156 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Pham ND, Shang J, Yang Y, et al. Alkaline-earth bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide) additives for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. Nano Energy, 2020, 69104412 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Zhang J, Zhang T, Jiang L, et al. 4-tert-Butylpyridine free hole transport materials for efficient perovskite solar cells: A new strategy to enhance the environmental and thermal stability. ACS Energy Lett, 2018, 31677-1682 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Caliò L, Salado M, Kazim S, et al. A generic route of hydrophobic doping in hole transporting material to increase longevity of perovskite solar cells. Joule, 2018, 21800-1815 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Bu T, Liu X, Zhou Y, et al. A novel quadruple-cation absorber for universal hysteresis elimination for high efficiency and stable perovskite solar cells. Energy Environ Sci, 2017, 102509-2515 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Djellab H, Armand M, Delabouglise D. Stabilization of the conductivity of poly(3-methylthiophene) by triflimide anions. Synth Met, 1995, 74223-226 CrossRef Google Scholar

[27] Shi D, Adinolfi V, Comin R, et al. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals. Science, 2015, 347519-522 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[28] Kang DH, Park NG. On the current–voltage hysteresis in perovskite solar cells: Dependence on perovskite composition and methods to remove hysteresis. Adv Mater, 2019, 311805214 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[29] Li Z, Xiao C, Yang Y, et al. Extrinsic ion migration in perovskite solar cells. Energy Environ Sci, 2017, 101234-1242 CrossRef Google Scholar

[30] Yu H, Lu H, Xie F, et al. Native defect-induced hysteresis behavior in organolead iodide perovskite solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2016, 261411-1419 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Jiang LL, Wang ZK, Li M, et al. Flower-like MoS2 nanocrystals: a powerful sorbent of Li+ in the Spiro-OMeTAD layer for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2019, 73655-3663 CrossRef Google Scholar

[32] Burschka J, Kessler F, Nazeeruddin MK, et al. Co(iii) complexes as p-dopants in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Chem Mater, 2013, 252986-2990 CrossRef Google Scholar

[33] Shen Y, Shen K‐, Li Y‐, et al. Interfacial potassium-guided grain growth for efficient deep-blue perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv Funct Mater, 2021, 312006736 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Abdi-Jalebi M, Andaji-Garmaroudi Z, Cacovich S, et al. Maximizing and stabilizing luminescence from halide perovskites with potassium passivation. Nature, 2018, 555497-501 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[35] Zheng F, Chen W, Bu T, et al. Triggering the passivation effect of potassium doping in mixed-cation mixed-halide perovskite by light illumination. Adv Energy Mater, 2019, 91901016 CrossRef Google Scholar

[36] Bu T, Li J, Zheng F, et al. Universal passivation strategy to slot-die printed SnO2 for hysteresis-free efficient flexible perovskite solar module. Nat Commun, 2018, 94609 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[37] Wetzelaer GJAH, Scheepers M, Sempere AM, et al. Trap-assisted non-radiative recombination in organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2015, 271837-1841 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[38] Yang M, Guo R, Kadel K, et al. Improved charge transport of Nb-doped TiO2 nanorods in methylammonium lead iodide bromide perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2014, 219616-19622 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Pascoe AR, Duffy NW, Scully AD, et al. Insights into planar CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells using impedance spectroscopy. J Phys Chem C, 2015, 1194444-4453 CrossRef Google Scholar

[40] Bang SM, Shin SS, Jeon NJ, et al. Defect-tolerant sodium-based dopant in charge transport layers for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. ACS Energy Lett, 2020, 51198-1205 CrossRef Google Scholar

[41] Xu B, Huang J, Ågren H, et al. AgTFSI as p-Type dopant for efficient and stable solid-state dye-sensitized and perovskite solar cells. ChemSusChem, 2014, 73252-3256 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (a) A typical normal structure of planar PSCs, and the molecular structure of spiro-OMeTAD. (b, c) The schematic of the different dopants and solvents for HTL. (d–f) AFM images of the perovskite film, perovskite/Li-spiro, and perovskite/K-spiro, respectively.

  • Figure 2

    (a) J-V characteristics of hole-only devices of pristine spiro-OMeTAD, Li-spiro and K-spiro films. (b) Steady-state PL and (c) TRPL measurements of perovskite (PSK), perovskite/Li-spiro and perovskite/K-spiro films.

  • Figure 3

    (a) The J-V curves of the champion Li-spiro and K-spiro devices tested under 1 Sun AM 1.5G. (b) The corresponding EQE spectra of these devices. (c) Steady-state output of photocurrent density measured at the MPP and illuminated under 1 Sun AM 1.5G. (d) Statistical distribution of the PCEs for the Li-spiro and K-spiro devices under RS and FS.

  • Figure 4

    The TOF-SIMS depth profiles of (a) Li-spiro device and (b) K-spiro device. The XPS spectra of perovskite films after removal of (c) Li-spiro and (d) K-spiro deposited five days ago.

  • Figure 5

    (a) The long-term photo-stability of devices under continuous 0.6 sun light illumination in air with encapsulation. (b) Stability test of the devices without encapsulation aged in air (relative humidity 25%, at 25°C). Contact angle measurements of (c) Li-spiro and (d) K-spiro films.

  • Table 1   Photovoltaic characteristics of PSCs prepared with different HTLs

    HTL

    Sweep

    VOC (V)

    JSC

    (mA cm−2)

    FF

    PCE (%)

    HI

    Li-spiro

    RS

    1.128

    22.62

    0.77

    19.75

    0.171

    FS

    1.073

    22.64

    0.67

    16.37

    K-spiro

    RS

    1.159

    22.98

    0.79

    20.94

    0.004

    FS

    1.149

    22.93

    0.80

    21.02

qqqq

Contact and support