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SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 64 , Issue 6 : 1305-1319(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-020-1585-1

Recent advances in the synthesis of monolithic metal–organic frameworks

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  • ReceivedSep 15, 2020
  • AcceptedDec 2, 2020
  • PublishedFeb 7, 2021

Abstract


Funded by

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(22008032,22078104)

Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation(2019A1515110706)

Guangdong Natural Science Foundation(2017A030313052,2019A1515011121)

the Key Project of Department of Education of Guangdong Province(2016GCZX008)

the National Key Research and Development Program(2019YFC1805804)

the Innovation Team of Universities in Guangdong Province(2020KCXTD011)

the Engineering Research Center of Universities in Guangdong Province(2019GCZX002)

the Guangdong Key Laboratory for Hydrogen Energy Technologies(2018B030322005)

and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.


Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (22008032 and 22078104), Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (2019A1515110706), Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (2017A030313052 and 2019A1515011121), the Key Project of Department of Education of Guangdong Province (2016GCZX008), the National Key Research and Development Program (2019YFC1805804), the Innovation Team of Universities in Guangdong Province (2020KCXTD011), the Engineering Research Center of Universities in Guangdong Province (2019GCZX002), the Guangdong Key Laboratory for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (2018B030322005), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.


Interest statement

The authors declare no competing financial interest.


Contributions statement

Original idea was conceived by Duan C, Yu Y, Chen D, and Xi H. Manuscript was drafted by Duan C, Yu Y, Li J, Li L, Huang B, Chen D, and Xi H. All authors discussed and commented on the manuscript.


Author information

Chongxiong Duan received his PhD degree in chemical engineering from South China University of Technology in 2019. He is currently an associate professor at the School of Materials Science and Hydrogen Engineering, Foshan University. His research interests focus on the development of porous materials (MOFs, porous carbon, zeolites) and their applications.


Dongchu Chen received his PhD degree in material science from Huazhong University of Science and Technology in 2004. He then worked as assistant professor at the School of Science, Foshan University, and currently is a professor at the School of Material Science and Hydrogen Engineering, Foshan University. His research interests focus on the functional materials, applied electrochemistry, and material surface modification.


Hongxia Xi received her PhD degree in chemical engineering from South China University of Technology in 1996. She then worked as a post-doctor for two years at Sun Yat-sen Unviersity, as a visiting scholar for one year at Savoie University, France, and as a senior visiting scholar for six months at The State University of New Jersey, USA. She is currently a professor of chemical engineering at South China University of Technology. Her research interests focus on the development of porous materials and their application.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic representations of the production of monoliths via (a) powder-packing synthesis, and (b) powder-packing synthesis coupled with ice-templating drying. Reprinted with permission from Refs [30,48]. Copyright 2014 & 2015, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 2

    Schematic diagram of the fabrication of HCM-Cu3(BTC)2. Reprinted with permission from Ref [63]. Copyright 2012, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 3

    Schematic diagram of the 3DP-HKUST-1. Reprinted with permission from Ref [65]. Copyright 2015, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 4

    Schematic diagram of the preparation of MIL@NIPAM monoliths (MIL = MIL-100(Fe or Cr)). Reprinted with permission from Ref [77]. Copyright 2016, Elsevier.

  • Figure 5

    Schematic diagram of the preparation of MOXs composite monoliths derived from MIL-100(Fe). Reprinted with permission from Ref [79]. Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 6

    Schematic diagram of the fabrication of ZIF-4 monolith using a pressure-assisted sintering technique. Reprinted with permission from Ref [83]. Copyright 2018, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 7

    Schematic illustration of (a) transformation from solution to MIL-100(Al) monolith and (b) structure of MIL-100(Al) monolith. Reprinted with permission from Ref [85]. Copyright 2012, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 8

    Schematic representation of the formation of initial MIL-53(Al), and the resultant MOFP, MOG and MOA. Reprinted with permission from Ref [87]. Copyright 2013, Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  • Figure 9

    (a) Graphical representation of the crystal structure of UiO-66; (b) XRD patterns of UiO-66 samples; (c) UiO-66 gel for synthesis of monoliths; and (d–g) the optical images of UiO-66 monoliths: UiO-66_A (UiO-66 gel washed in ethanol and dried at 200°C); UiO-66_B (UiO-66 gel washed in ethanol and dried at 30°C); UiO-66_C (UiO-66 gel washed in DMF and dried at 30°C); UiO-66_D (UiO-66 gel washed in DMF with extended centrifugation and then dried at 30°C). Reprinted with permission from Ref [96].

  • Figure 10

    Picture of samples: (a) MIL-101(Cr) monolith, and (b) MIL-101@HIPE composites. Reprinted with permission from Refs [47,101]. Copyright 2015, Elsevier.

  • Figure 11

    Schematic diagram of preparation of MOF-coated monoliths by LBL assembly + secondary growth and the ISDC techniques. Reprinted with permission from Ref [103]. Copyright 2017, Elsevier.

  • Figure 12

    Schematic diagram of the preparation of monolithic MOFs by a 3D printing technique. Reprinted with permission from Ref [29]. Copyright 2017, ACS Publications.

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