SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 64 , Issue 6 : 1437-1448(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-020-1539-2

Flexible, stretchable and magnetic Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx/elastomer with supramolecular interfacial crosslinking for enhancing mechanical and electromagnetic interference shielding performance

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  • ReceivedJul 30, 2020
  • AcceptedOct 14, 2020
  • PublishedJan 7, 2021



the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51861165203)

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2019M653398)

Sichuan Science and Technology Program(2020YJ0261)


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51861165203), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019M653398) and Sichuan Science and Technology Program (2020YJ0261). We would like to thank the Analytical & Testing Centre of Sichuan University for XPS, TEM and we would be grateful to Guiping Yuan for her help in TEM characterization. We also thank Shiyanjia Lab (www.shiyanjia.com) for the support of VSM and XRD test.

Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Lu C and Zhou Z were responsible for the experimental concept and design; Song Q and Chen B carried out most of the experiments, characterization and data analyses. Song Q wrote the paper with support from Lu C and Zhou Z. All authors contributed to the general discussion.

Author information

Quancheng Song is currently a Master candidate under the supervision of Prof. Lu at the State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University. His research interest focuses on the flexible polymer functional composite materials.

Zehang Zhou is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University. He received his PhD in materials science and engineering from Sichuan University in 2018. He worked as a visiting researcher in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Philadelphia from 2015 to 2017. His research interests focus on the fabrication and application of polymer functional composite materials and natural polymer composite.

Canhui Lu is currently a professor at the State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University. He received his PhD from Sichuan University in 2002. His research areas include polymer blends and composites, design and fabrication of nanocellulose-based electrochemical energy storage devices, flexible triboelectric nanogenerators for self-powered functional electronics, and polymer solid phase mechanochemistry and highly filled polymer composites.

Supplementary data

Supplementary information

Experimental details and supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic illustration of the synthesis of FMDE nanocomposite. (a) Schematic diagram of Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx prepared by in situ deposition of Fe3O4 with Ti3C2Tx as the template. (b) Surface modification of ENR latex with DOPAC. (c) Constructing FMDE nanocomposites with interconnected isolation structure via the self-assembly method.

  • Figure 2

    Chemical interactions and characterization of nanostructures. (a) Designed conductive segregated network coordinate with interfacial supramolecular interactions. (b) Metal coordination and hydrogen bonding interactions between the chemical structure of Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx nanosheets and DENR latex. (c) TEM image of Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx nanosheets. (d) TEM images of the ordered 3D segregated network structure of FMDE.(e) LSCM image of the network structure in FMDE nanocomposite. (f) SAXS 2D patterns of FMDE.

  • Figure 3

    (a) XPS survey spectrum of Ti3C2Tx and Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx nanocomposite. The inset magnifies the XPS spectra of Fe 2p. (b) Ti 2p XPS spectrum of Ti3C2Tx and Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx. (c) XRD patterns of Ti3C2Tx and Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx and the inset magnifies (002) peak. (d) Laser confocal Raman spectrum of Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx/DENR, Ti3C2Tx/ENR, Fe3O4/DOPAC and pure DPOAC. The characteristic signals at 500–700 cm−1 and 1200–1500 cm−1 confirm the iron-catechol coordination. 1D SAXS plot of (e) ln(I(q))-ln(q) with the blue dashed line for visual observation and (f) ln(q3I(q))-q2 with the straight line as the fitting slopes.

  • Figure 4

    (a, c) Stress-strain curves of FMDE, Ti3C2Tx/ENR nanocomposites, pure ENR and their comparison. (b, d) Mechanical properties of FMDE, Ti3C2Tx/ENR nanocomposites, pure ENR and their comparison. (e) Comparison of tensile stress of FMDE and Ti3C2Tx/ENR with previously reported results in the literature. The detailed data are listed in Table S2 in the Supplementary information. (f) LSCM image of the network structure in FMDE nanocomposite with a 100% stretched state. (g) Schematic representation of the stretch and fracture mechanism of FMDE nanocomposites. (h) Digital photograph of FMDE-10 lifting up a weight of 500 g. The inset images show the dimensions of the strip before and after stretching.

  • Figure 5

    (a) Magnetic hysteresis loops of the Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx and Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx/DENR nanocomposites. The inset images show an enlarged view of Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx (i) and Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx/DENR (ii). (b) Digital photos visually exhibit the response behaviors of Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx and Fe3O4@Ti3C2Tx/DENR to permanent magnet.

  • Figure 6

    Characterization of EMI shielding effectiveness. (a) Plots of EMI SE versus frequency for FMDE with different Ti3C2Tx contents (thickness ~1.2 mm). (b) Comparison of EMI SE of FMDE and Ti3C2Tx/ENR with different Ti3C2Tx contents (thickness ~1.2 mm). (c) EMI SE in the X-band of FMDE-15 at various thicknesses. (d, e) Shielding by reflection, absorption, and total shielding of FMDE and Ti3C2Tx/ENR nanocomposites. (f) EMI SE of FMDE-10 elastomer under cyclic 140° bending and 30% stretching. The illustration shows the resistance change during the bending and stretching cycles. (g) Schematic representation of shielding mechanism for FMDE with 3D segregated network. (h) Comparison of EMI SE of FMDE (red stars) with currently reported results in the literature. The detailed data are listed in Table S3 in the Supplementary information.


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