SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 63 , Issue 12 : 2620-2626(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-020-1454-x

Deformation map of metallic glass: Normal stress effect

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  • ReceivedApr 29, 2020
  • AcceptedJul 3, 2020
  • PublishedSep 24, 2020



the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51771205)

and Liaoning Revitalization Talents Program(XLYC1808027)


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51771205), and Liaoning Revitalization Talents Program (XLYC1808027).

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Zhang Z and Qu R conceived and supervised the study; Wu S performed the experiments and wrote the manuscript with the supports from Qu R, Zhang Z, Zhang H and Zhu Z. All authors contributed to the general discussion.

Author information

Shaojie Wu obtained his BSc degree from Xi’an Jiaotong University in 2015. He is currently a PhD student under the supervision of Prof. Zhefeng Zhang and Prof. Ruitao Qu at the Institute of Metal Research (IMR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). His research focuses on the deformation and fracture mechanisms of high-strength materials.

Ruitao Qu is a professor at the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University. He received his BSc degree from Xi’an Jiaotong University in 2006, and PhD degree from the IMR, CAS in 2012. He joined the IMR as an assistant professor in 2012 and became an associate professor in 2015. From 2017 to 2019, he worked with Prof. Cynthia A. Volkert at the University of Gottingen as a Humboldt Postdoctoral Researcher. He assumed his present position in 2020. He works in the field of mechanical behaviors of advanced metallic materials with a special focus on their damage mechanics, strength theory and fracture mechanism.

Zhefeng Zhang is a professor at the IMR, CAS. He received his BSc and MSc degrees from Xi’an Jiaotong University in 1992 and 1995, respectively. After receiving his PhD degree in 1998 from the IMR, CAS, he joined the IMR as a research associate. From 2000 to 2001, he worked at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan as a JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) fellow. From 2001 to 2003, he was awarded by Alexander von Humboldt foundation working with Prof. L. Schultz and Prof. J. Eckert at the Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW-Dresden, Germany. He assumed his present position in 2004. His research focuses on the mechanical properties, specifically associated with the fatigue and fracture behavior of materials. He has published more than 480 papers in international journals which have been cited more than 13,000 times.


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  • Figure 1

    Mechanical responses and fracture features of Ti32.8Zr30.2Ni5.3Cu9Be22.7 MG tested at different temperatures. (a, b) Typical stress-strain curves under (a) compression and (b) tension at strain rate of 10−4 s−1. The deformation modes of the samples displayed by the blue, red and black curves are shear localization, non-Newtonian flow and Newtonian flow, respectively. (c, d) Representative deformation or fracture features under (c) compression and (d) tension.

  • Figure 2

    Variations of yield strength with temperature at different strain rates under compression and tension. The green circle shadow and dash lines indicate the onset of homogeneous deformation.

  • Figure 3

    Deformation maps of Ti32.8Zr30.2Ni5.3Cu9Be22.7 MG in strain rate-temperature coordinate axes under compression and tension. The blue, red and black dots indicate the shear localization, non-Newtonian flow and Newtonian flow, respectively.

  • Figure 4

    Schematic illustration of the effect of normal stress on the atomic motion and the current free volume content. The orange and blue circles represent the atomic positions before and after loading, respectively, showing that the σcn decreases slightly the current free volume content while the σtn largely increases it.


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