SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 63 , Issue 12 : 2582-2589(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-020-1404-y

Stretchable electrothermochromic fibers based on hierarchical porous structures with electrically conductive dual-pathways

More info
  • ReceivedApr 2, 2020
  • AcceptedMay 20, 2020
  • PublishedJul 29, 2020


Funded by

the Natural Science Foundation of China(51672043)

DHU Distinguished Young Professor Program(LZB2019002)

Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by CAST(2017QNRC001)

and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(CUSF-DH-D-2018006)


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51672043), Donghua University Distinguished Young Professor Program (LZB2019002), Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by China Association for Science and Technology (2017QNRC001), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (CUSF-DH-D-2018006).

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Li K, Fan H, and Li Q conceived the project; Fan H and Li Q carried out the preparation and measurement of stretchable electrothermochromic fibers; Wang H, Hou C, Zhang Q and Li Y assisted the result analysis; Fan H, Li K and Wang H co-wrote the manuscript.

Author information

Hongzhi Wang joined the College of Material Science and Engineering in Donghua University as a full professor in 2005. Before that, he completed his postdoc research at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan. In recent years, he leads a research group at Donghua University and pursues to construct various flexible multi-functional devices, including flexible optoelectronic devices, artificial muscles and flexible energy sources/systems for smart textiles/clothing.


Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


[1] House DH, Breen DE. Cloth Modeling and Animation. Boca Raton: AK Peters Ltd./CRC Press, 2000. Google Scholar

[2] Chae S , Park H, Yoon J, et al. Polydiacetylene supramolecules in electrospun microfibers: Fabrication, micropatterning, and sensor applications. Adv Mater, 2007, 19: 521-524 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Cai L, Peng Y, Xu J, et al. Temperature regulation in colored infrared-transparent polyethylene textiles. Joule, 2019, 3: 1478-1486 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Gao HL, Zhao R, Cui C, et al. Bioinspired hierarchical helical nanocomposite macrofibers based on bacterial cellulose nanofibers. Natl Sci Rev, 2020, 7: 73-83 CrossRef Google Scholar

[5] Ma T, Gao HL, Cong HP, et al. A bioinspired interface design for improving the strength and electrical conductivity of graphene-based fibers. Adv Mater, 2018, 30: 1706435 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[6] Ge J, Sun L, Zhang FR, et al. A stretchable electronic fabric artificial skin with pressure-, lateral strain-, and flexion-sensitive properties. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 722-728 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[7] Woo J, Lee H, Yi C, et al. Ultrastretchable helical conductive fibers using percolated Ag nanoparticle networks encapsulated by elastic polymers with high durability in omnidirectional deformations for wearable electronics. Adv Funct Mater, 2020, : 1910026 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Lee S, Shin S, Lee S, et al. Ag nanowire reinforced highly stretchable conductive fibers for wearable electronics. Adv Funct Mater, 2015, 25: 3114-3121 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Fu X, Li Z, Xu L, et al. Amphiphilic core-sheath structured composite fiber for comprehensively performed supercapacitor. Sci China Mater, 2019, 62: 955-964 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Wu X, Peng H. Polymer-based flexible bioelectronics. Sci Bull, 2019, 64: 634-640 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Hong Y, Cheng XL, Liu GJ, et al. One-step production of continuous supercapacitor fibers for a flexible power textile. Chin J Polym Sci, 2019, 37: 737-743 CrossRef Google Scholar

[12] Lu X, Zhang Z, Sun X, et al. Flexible and stretchable chromatic fibers with high sensing reversibility. Chem Sci, 2016, 7: 5113-5117 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[13] Khudiyev T, Hou C, Stolyarov AM, et al. Sub-micrometer surface-patterned ribbon fibers and textiles. Adv Mater, 2017, 29: 1605868 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[14] Jin Y, Lin Y, Kiani A, et al. Materials tactile logic via innervated soft thermochromic elastomers. Nat Commun, 2019, 10: 4187 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[15] Huang G, Liu L, Wang R, et al. Smart color-changing textile with high contrast based on a single-sided conductive fabric. J Mater Chem C, 2016, 4: 7589-7594 CrossRef Google Scholar

[16] Gauvreau B, Guo N, Schicker K, et al. Color-changing and color-tunable photonic bandgap fiber textiles. Opt Express, 2008, 16: 15677-15693 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[17] Günay M. Eco-Friendly Textile Dyeing and Finishing. Rijeka:InTech, 2013. Google Scholar

[18] Hunger K. Industrial Dyes: Chemistry, Properties, Applications. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2002. Google Scholar

[19] Yoon B, Ham DY, Yarimaga O, et al. Inkjet printing of conjugated polymer precursors on paper substrates for colorimetric sensing and flexible electrothermochromic display. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 5492-5497 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[20] Shi R, Lou Z, Chen S, et al. Flexible and transparent capacitive pressure sensor with patterned microstructured composite rubber dielectric for wearable touch keyboard application. Sci China Mater, 2018, 61: 1587-1595 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Sun X, Zhang J, Lu X, et al. Mechanochromic photonic-crystal fibers based on continuous sheets of aligned carbon nanotubes. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2015, 54: 3630-3634 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[22] Pu J, Wang X, Xu R, et al. Highly stretchable microsupercapacitor arrays with honeycomb structures for integrated wearable electronic systems. ACS Nano, 2016, 10: 9306-9315 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[23] Jia R, Li L, Ai Y, et al. Self-healable wire-shaped supercapacitors with two twisted NiCo2O4 coated polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel fibers. Sci China Mater, 2018, 61: 254-262 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Zhou Y, Fang J, Wang H, et al. Multicolor electrochromic fibers with helix-patterned electrodes. Adv Electron Mater, 2018, 4: 1800104 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Kinashi K, Suzuki T, Yasunaga H, et al. Carrier-assisted dyeing of poly(L-lactic acid) fibers with dispersed photochromic spiropyran dyes. Dyes Pigments, 2017, 145: 444-450 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Yuan W, Li Q, Zhou N, et al. Structural color fibers directly drawn from colloidal suspensions with controllable optical properties. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2019, 11: 19388-19396 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[27] Shang S, Liu Z, Zhang Q, et al. Facile fabrication of a magnetically induced structurally colored fiber and its strain-responsive properties. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3: 11093-11097 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Pinto TV, Cardoso N, Costa P, et al. Light driven PVDF fibers based on photochromic nanosilica@naphthopyran fabricated by wet spinning. Appl Surf Sci, 2019, 470: 951-958 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[29] Shang S, Zhang Q, Wang H, et al. Facile fabrication of magnetically responsive PDMS fiber for camouflage. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2016, 483: 11-16 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[30] Pinto TV, Fernandes DM, Guedes A, et al. Photochromic polypropylene fibers based on UV-responsive silica@phosphomolybdate nanoparticles through melt spinning technology. Chem Eng J, 2018, 350: 856-866 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Li K, Shao Y, Yan H, et al. Lattice-contraction triggered synchronous electrochromic actuator. Nat Commun, 2018, 9: 4798 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[32] Li K, Zhang Q, Wang H, et al. Red, green, blue (RGB) electrochromic fibers for the new smart color change fabrics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2014, 6: 13043-13050 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[33] Li Q, Li K, Fan H, et al. Reduced graphene oxide functionalized stretchable and multicolor electrothermal chromatic fibers. J Mater Chem C, 2017, 5: 11448-11453 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Zhou Y, Zhao Y, Fang J, et al. Electrochromic/supercapacitive dual functional fibres. RSC Adv, 2016, 6: 110164 CrossRef Google Scholar

[35] Sukitpaneenit P, Chung TS. Molecular elucidation of morphology and mechanical properties of PVDF hollow fiber membranes from aspects of phase inversion, crystallization and rheology. J Membrane Sci, 2009, 340: 192-205 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    Fabrication of the stretchable electrothermochromic fibers. Schematic illustration of (a) preparation process and (b) structure of the stretchable electrothermochromic fiber. (c) Cross-sectional SEM image of the stretchable electrothermochromic fiber (scale bar: 200 μm). (d) Digital photograph of the stretchable conductive fiber with a length of 3.0 m.

  • Figure 2

    Mechanical performance and morphology of porous CNT/PU composite fibers. (a) Stress-strain curves of the porous CNT/PU composite fibers with different loadings of CNTs. (b) Cross-sectional SEM image of the porous CNT/PU composite fiber (scale bar: 200 µm). (c) Enlarged SEM image of the porous CNT/PU composite fiber (scale bar: 5 µm).

  • Figure 3

    Tensile stability and conductive mechanism of the stretchable conductive fibers. (a) SEM image of the stretchable conductive fiber (scale bar: 3 µm). (b) Schematic diagram of conductive dual-pathways of the stretchable conductive fibers under stretching/releasing states. (c) Resistive ratio (ΔR/R0) variations as a function of tensile strains of the stretchable conductive fibers fabricated with different preparation conditions. (d) Cycling stability of the stretchable conductive fiber during repeated stretching/releasing process with the maximum strain of 60%.

  • Figure 4

    Color-changing performances of the stretchable electrothermochromic fibers under different strains. (a) Temperature-time curves,(b) digital photographs, (c) corresponding thermal images and (d) reflectance spectra of the stretchable electrothermochromic fibers at different stains. (e) Cyclic stability of the stretchable electrothermochromic fibers during repeated stretching/releasing processes under maximum stains of 30% and 60%, respectively.

  • Figure 5

    Color-changing performances of the stretchable electrothermochromic fibers under different applied voltages. (a) Temperature changes of the stretchable electrothermochromic fibers under different voltages. (b) In-situ reflectance response of the stretchable electrothermochromic fiber under switched voltages between 0 and 7 V at wavelength of 524 nm. (c) ΔRT of stretchable electrothermochromic fiber at wavelength of 524 nm during 1000 color-changing cycles. (d) Digital photographs of the stretchable electrothermochromic fiber with pattern of “clover” implanted into textile (scale bar: 3 mm).


Contact and support