SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 63 , Issue 7 : 1291-1299(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-020-1280-5

Large exchange bias in magnetic shape memory alloys by tuning magnetic ground state and magnetic-field history

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  • ReceivedFeb 11, 2020
  • AcceptedFeb 24, 2020
  • PublishedApr 8, 2020



the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51471127,51431007,51371134)

the Program for Young Scientific New-star in Shaanxi Province of China(2014KJXX-35)

the Innovation Capability Support Program of Shaanxi(2018PT-28,2017KTPT-04)

Shenzhen Science and Technology Project(JCYJ20180507182246321)

and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China.


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51471127, 51431007 and 51371134), the Program for Young Scientific New-star in Shaanxi Province of China (2014KJXX-35), the Innovation Capability Support Program of Shaanxi (2018PT-28 and 2017KTPT-04), Shenzhen Science and Technology Project (JCYJ20180507182246321), and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China.

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Liao X and Wang Y designed the experiments; Gao L, Xu X, Chang T and Chen K performed the experiments; Liao X, Wang Y, Zeng Y and Svedlindh P performed the data analysis; Liao X, Wang Y, Khan MT and Yang S wrote and revised the paper. All authors contributed to the general discussion.

Author information

Xiaoqi Liao is a postdoctoral researcher at Shenzhen University. He received a PhD degree in 2019 from Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU). During 2017–2018, he was a joint-training PhD student at Uppsala University. His research interest focuses on magnetic materials and devices, including magnetic shape memory alloys, self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles and 2D materials.

Yu Wang received his PhD degree (2008) from XJTU in the fields of condensed matter physics. Afterwards, he spent two years at the National Institute for Materials Science of Japan as a postdoctor under the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellowship. In 2019, he was appointed as a full professor at the School of Science, XJTU. His research interests include magnetic materials, shape memory alloys and spintronics.

Sen Yang received his PhD degree in materials physics from XJTU, China in 2005. He joined the National Institute for Materials Science, Japan in 2005 as a JSPS post-doctor. In the year of 2010, he came back to XJTU and was promoted to full professor in 2013. His research interests are in magnetism and magnetic materials, smart materials, phase transition and so on.

Supplementary data

Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    DSC curves of Ni50Mn34In16−xFex MSMA for (a) x = 1, (b) x = 3, and (c) x = 5. Temperature dependence of magnetization curves with ZFC (open circles) and FC (solid squares) protocols under a field of 10 mT for (d) x = 1, (e) x = 3, and (f) x = 5. Real part (χ’) of AC susceptibility vs. temperature for (g) x = 1, (h) x = 3, and (i) x = 5, which was measured in a frequency range of 1–333 Hz at a magnetic field strength of 0.5 mT. Insets of (g–i) show that the lnτ vs. Tp (solid spheres) curve conforms to the power-law (red line).

  • Figure 2

    (a) Dependence of τ0 on x obtained by fitting the AC susceptibility in Fig. 1. (b) Saturated magnetization (MSM) in martensite at 5 K as a function of x. (c) Phase diagram for Ni50Mn34In16−xFex (x = 1–5) MSMAs. (d–f) show schematically that the low-temperature magnetic state evolves from CSG/AFM to DSG/AFM as x increases from 1 to 5. The yellow circles represent the FM clusters with different sizes. The blue background represents the AFM matrix, the color of which gradually becomes darker, representing the AFM interaction becoming stronger.

  • Figure 3

    MH curves of Ni50Mn34In16xFex (x = 1, 3, 5) MSMAs measured at 5 K. (a) MH curves measured with HFC = 0.4 T and HMax = 1 T for x = 1, 3, 5. (b) M–H curves measured with x = 3 and HMax = 1 T for HFC = 0.01, 0.4, and 6 T. (c) MH curves obtained with x = 3 and HFC = 0.4 T forHMax = 1, 4, and 6 T. A magnified view of the low-field region is depicted in the inset of (a) and (c).

  • Figure 4

    (a) HEB as a function of HFC for Ni50Mn34In16−xFex (x = 1, 3, 5) MSMAs measured under HMax = 1, 4, and 6 T. (b) Sketches for the evolution of magnetic state from (1) to (5) with varying HFC and HMax, which explains the dependence of EB on HFC and HMax. The yellow circles represent the FM clusters with different sizes and the blue background represents the AFM matrix.

  • Figure 5

    Three-dimensional contour for HMEB (black spheres) as the function of x, HFC, and HMax.

  • Figure 6

    Plot of HEB with respect to HFC and HMax for important MSMAs.


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