SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 62 , Issue 12 : 1888-1897(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-019-9473-2

Advanced 3D nanohybrid foam based on graphene oxide: Facile fabrication strategy, interfacial synergetic mechanism, and excellent photocatalytic performance

More info
  • ReceivedJun 1, 2019
  • AcceptedJul 7, 2019
  • PublishedJul 31, 2019



the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51573013,51873016)

the Open Project Program of Beijing Key Laboratory of Quality Evaluation Technology for Hygiene and Safety of Plastics

Beijing Technology and Business University(QETHSP2019006)


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, 51573013 and 51873016) and the Open Project Program of Beijing Key Laboratory of Quality Evaluation Technology for Hygiene and Safety of Plastics, Beijing Technology and Business University (QETHSP2019006).

Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Zhang X, Wen B, and Su Z designed the project; Wei W, Zhang X, and Zhang S performed the experiments; Zhang X and Wei W wrote the paper with support from Wen B and Su Z. All authors contributed to the general discussion.

Author information

Zhiqiang Su was born in 1975 and obtained his PhD degree in 2005 at the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. After a postdoctoral stay at Tsinghua University, he joined Beijing University of Chemical Technology in 2007 and was appointed as full professor in 2012. In 2011 he worked at Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany as an experienced research fellow of Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. His research interest includes nanohybrids, biomedical materials, biosensors, and bioelectronics. So far, he has published more than 100 peer-reviewed papers with 3300 citations. His H-index is 35.


[1] Liu W, Liu Z, Wang G, et al. Carbon coated Au/TiO2 mesoporous microspheres: A novel selective photocatalyst. Sci China Mater, 2017, 60438-448 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Yang X, Tian L, Zhao X, et al. Interfacial optimization of g-C3N4-based Z-scheme heterojunction toward synergistic enhancement of solar-driven photocatalytic oxygen evolution. Appl Catal B-Environ, 2019, 244240-249 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Pacholski C, Kornowski A, Weller H. Site-specific photodeposition of silver on ZnO nanorods. Angew Chem Int Ed, 2004, 434774-4777 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[4] Ding J, Zhu S, Zhu T, et al. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for an electrochemical hydrazine sensor. RSC Adv, 2015, 522935-22942 CrossRef Google Scholar

[5] Sun K, Wang L, Wu C, et al. Fabrication of α-Fe2O3@rGO/PAN nanofiber composite membrane for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. Adv Mater Interfaces, 2017, 41700845 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Tian J, Zhao Z, Kumar A, et al. Recent progress in design, synthesis, and applications of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostruc-tured surface heterostructures: A review. Chem Soc Rev, 2014, 436920-6937 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[7] Almeida BM, Melo Jr. MA, Bettini J, et al. A novel nanocomposite based on TiO2/Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide with enhanced solar-light-driven photocatalytic activity. Appl Surf Sci, 2015, 324419-431 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[8] Ding J, Sun W, Wei G, et al. Cuprous oxide microspheres on graphene nanosheets: An enhanced material for non-enzymatic electrochemical detection of H2O2 and glucose. RSC Adv, 2015, 535338-35345 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Zhao X, Li Y, Guo Y, et al. Coral-like MoS2/Cu2O porous nanohybrid with dual-electrocatalyst performances. Adv Mater Interfaces, 2016, 31600658 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Gao C, Li X, Lu B, et al. A facile method to prepare SnO2 nanotubes for use in efficient SnO2–TiO2 core–shell dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanoscale, 2012, 43475-3481 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[11] Cui S, Wen Z, Huang X, et al. Stabilizing MoS2 nanosheets through SnO2 nanocrystal decoration for high-performance gas sensing in air. Small, 2015, 112305-2313 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[12] Yu X, Lin D, Li P, et al. Recent advances in the synthesis and energy applications of TiO2-graphene nanohybrids. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2017, 172252-269 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Dong X, Cao Y, Wang J, et al. Hybrid structure of zinc oxide nanorods and three dimensional graphene foam for supercapacitor and electrochemical sensor applications. RSC Adv, 2012, 24364-4369 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Zhang Y, Tang ZR, Fu X, et al. Engineering the unique 2D mat of graphene to achieve graphene-TiO2 nanocomposite for photocatalytic selective transformation: What advantage does graphene have over its forebear carbon nanotube?. ACS Nano, 2011, 57426-7435 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[15] Zhang L, Hu X, Wang C, et al. Water-dispersible and recyclable magnetic TiO2/graphene nanocomposites in wastewater treatment. Mater Lett, 2018, 23180-83 CrossRef Google Scholar

[16] Shirai K, Fazio G, Sugimoto T, et al. Water-assisted hole trapping at the highly curved surface of nano-TiO2 photocatalyst. J Am Chem Soc, 2018, 1401415-1422 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[17] Razali MH, Yusoff M. Highly efficient CuO loaded TiO2 nanotube photocatalyst for CO2 photoconversion. Mater Lett, 2018, 221168-171 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Pan X, Zhao Y, Liu S, et al. Comparing graphene-TiO2 nanowire and graphene-TiO2 nanoparticle composite photocatalysts. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2012, 43944-3950 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[19] Wang C, Zhang X, Zhang Y, et al. Hydrothermal growth of layered titanate nanosheet arrays on titanium foil and their topotactic transformation to heterostructured TiO2 photocatalysts. J Phys Chem C, 2011, 11522276-22285 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Li B, Xi B, Feng Z, et al. Hierarchical porous nanosheets constructed by graphene-coated, interconnected TiO2 nanoparticles for ultrafast sodium storage. Adv Mater, 2018, 301705788 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[21] Quan Q, Xie S, Weng B, et al. Revealing the double-edged sword role of graphene on boosted charge transfer versus active site control in TiO2 nanotube arrays@RGO/MoS2 heterostructure. Small, 2018, 141704531 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[22] Sathish Kumar M, Yamini Yasoda K, Kumaresan D, et al. TiO2-carbon quantum dots (CQD) nanohybrid: Enhanced photocatalytic activity. Mater Res Express, 2018, 5075502 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[23] Yang J, Wen Z, Shen X, et al. A comparative study on the photo-catalytic behavior of graphene-TiO2 nanostructures: Effect of TiO2 dimensionality on interfacial charge transfer. Chem Eng J, 2018, 334907-921 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Chen W, Li S, Chen C, et al. Self-assembly and embedding of nanoparticles by in situ reduced graphene for preparation of a 3D graphene/nanoparticle aerogel. Adv Mater, 2011, 235679-5683 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[25] Long R, Casanova D, Fang WH, et al. Donor–acceptor interaction determines the mechanism of photoinduced electron injection from graphene quantum dots into TiO2: π-Stacking supersedes covalent bonding. J Am Chem Soc, 2017, 1392619-2629 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[26] Zhang Y, Foster CW, Banks CE, et al. Graphene-rich wrapped petal-like rutile TiO2 tuned by carbon dots for high-performance sodium storage. Adv Mater, 2016, 289391-9399 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[27] Lee JS, You KH, Park CB. Highly photoactive, low bandgap TiO2 nanoparticles wrapped by graphene. Adv Mater, 2012, 241084-1088 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[28] Yu X, Liu W, Deng X, et al. Gold nanocluster embedded bovine serum albumin nanofibers-graphene hybrid membranes for the efficient detection and separation of mercury ion. Chem Eng J, 2018, 335176-184 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Yu X, Zhang W, Zhang P, et al. Fabrication technologies and sensing applications of graphene-based composite films: Advances and challenges. Biosens Bioelectron, 2017, 8972-84 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[30] Kim H, Cho MY, Kim MH, et al. A novel high-energy hybrid supercapacitor with an anatase TiO2-reduced graphene oxide anode and an activated carbon cathode. Adv Energy Mater, 2013, 31500-1506 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Deng W, Fang Q, Zhou X, et al. Hydrothermal self-assembly of graphene foams with controllable pore size. RSC Adv, 2016, 620843-20849 CrossRef Google Scholar

[32] Li K, Liu W, Ni Y, et al. Technical synthesis and biomedical applications of graphene quantum dots. J Mater Chem B, 2017, 54811-4826 CrossRef Google Scholar

[33] Marcano DC, Kosynkin DV, Berlin JM, et al. Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. ACS Nano, 2010, 44806-4814 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[34] Sakthivel S, Neppolian B, Shankar MV, et al. Solar photocatalytic degradation of azo dye: Comparison of photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO and TiO2. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2003, 7765-82 CrossRef Google Scholar

[35] Atchudan R, Jebakumar Immanuel Edison TN, Perumal S, et al. Effective photocatalytic degradation of anthropogenic dyes using graphene oxide grafting titanium dioxide nanoparticles under UV-light irradiation. J PhotoChem PhotoBiol A-Chem, 2017, 33392-104 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Scheme 1

    Schematic of the preparation of GO-TiO2-CQDs foam.

  • Figure 1

    SEM images of TiO2@glucose (a) and TiO2-CQDs (b); (c) TEM and HRTEM images of TiO2-CQDs; (d–f) elemental analyses of TiO2-CQDs; (g) elemental analysis of TiO2-CQDs prepared by hydrothermal method.

  • Scheme 2

    Photocatalytic degradation mechanism of the synthesized GO-TiO2-CQDs foam on organic dyes under Xenon lamp irradiation.

  • Figure 2

    (a) SEM image of GO foam and (b) GO foam with larger magnification; (c) SEM image of GO-TiO2-CQDs foam and (d) foam with larger magnification.

  • Figure 3

    UV-vis spectra (a), fluorescence spectra (b), zeta potential (c) of TiO2, CQDs and TiO2-CQDs, and Raman shift (d) of TiO2, CQDs and TiO2-CQDs.

  • Figure 4

    FTIR (a), Raman shift (b), XRD patterns (c) and XPS spectra (d) of GO foam and GO-TiO2-CQD foam. The Ti 2p peaks (e) and the C1s peaks (f) of GO-TiO2-CQD foam.

  • Figure 5

    UV-vis spectra of MO degradation with GO foam (a), GO-TiO2 foam (b) and GO-TiO2-CQDs foam (c) with different irradiation times; photocatalytic degradation kinetics of MO (d), MB (e), RhB (f) and the relevant optical image of the degradation with GO foam, GO-TiO2 foam, GO-TiO2-CQD foam and TiO2 powder after 3 h; the error for each data point is not more than 5%, photocatalysis degradation rates of MO (g), MB (h) and RhB (i) at different cycles.


Contact and support