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Water-based routes for synthesis of metal-organic frameworks: A review

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  • ReceivedOct 2, 2019
  • AcceptedFeb 6, 2020
  • PublishedMar 27, 2020

Abstract


Funded by

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21576094,21776097,51678245)

Guangdong Natural Science Foundation(2017A030313052,2019A1515011121)

Guangzhou Technology Project(201804010219)

and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.


Acknowledgment

We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21576094, 21776097 and 51678245), Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (2017A030313052 and 2019A1515011121), Guangzhou Science & Technology Project (201804010219), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Original idea was conceived by Duan C, Yu Y, and Xi H. Manuscript was drafted by Duan C, Yu Y, Xiao J, Zhang X, Li L, Yang P, Wu J and Xi H. All authors discussed and commented on the manuscript.


Author information

Chongxiong Duan received his PhD degree in chemical engineering from South China University of Technology in 2019. He is currently an associate professor at the School of Materials Science and Energy Engineering, Foshan University. His research interests include the synthesis and characterization of functional nanoporous materials (MOFs, zeolites), and green chemistry.


Junliang Wu received his PhD degree in energy and environmental materials from South China University of Technology in 2014. He was a visiting scholar at the University of Massachusetts Amherst (2016–2017). He is currently an associate professor in environment engineering at South China University of Technology. His research concerns environmental materials and their applications.


Hongxia Xi received her PhD degree in chemical engineering from South China University of Technology in 1996. She then worked as a post-doctor for two years at Sun Yat-sen Unviersity, as a visiting scholar for one year at Savoie University, France, and as a senior visiting scholar for six months at The State University of New Jersey, USA. She is currently a professor of chemical engineering at South China University of Technology. Her research interests focus on the development of porous materials and their applications.


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  • Figure 1

    (a) XRD patterns and (b, c) TEM images of ZIF-8 synthesized in an aqueous solution; (d) photograph of the as-synthesized ZIF-8 dispersed in methanol. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [88]. Copyright 2011, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 2

    Illustration of the influence of TEA concentration on the ZIF-8 formation in aqueous systems. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [94]. Copyright 2014, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 3

    Schematic of the room-temperature synthesis of CoZn–ZIF-8 in aqueous solution. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [96]. Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 4

    Schematic diagram of MOF-199 (HKUST-1) synthesis from a wholly aqueous reaction mixture. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [102]. Copyright 2013, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 5

    Schematic of the flow reactor system for MOF-74–Ni production. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [106]. Copyright 2018, Springer.

  • Figure 6

    Schematic illustration of the preparation of NH2–MIL-53(Al) nanocrystals obtained from different solvents. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [115]. Copyright 2013, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 7

    (a) XRD patterns of Al–MIL-68–Mes and the calculated data; (b) synthetic process of Al–MIL-68–Mes in an aqueous solution. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [126]. Copyright 2018, Wiley-VCH.

  • Figure 8

    TEM images of (a) MNPs and (b) MFC-N-100 samples; (c) elemental mapping images of MFC-N-100. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [128]. Copyright 2018, ACS Publications.

  • Figure 9

    SEM images of Zr-fumarate MOF crystals synthesized under different reaction conditions. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [138]. Copyright 2015, Elsevier.

  • Figure 10

    Diagram of room-temperature aqueous synthesis of Zr–MOFs. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [143]. Copyright 2018, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 11

    Schematic illustration of the construction of hexagonal mesoUiO-66–NH2 from an aqueous solution. Reprinted with permission from reference [74]. Copyright 2018, Wiley-VCH.

  • Figure 12

    Twin-screw extrusion (TSE) setup used for the continuous mechanochemical fabrication of UiO-66–NH2 MOFs (extruded product was collected in a 1000 mL beaker). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [154]. Copyright 2018, ACS Publications.

  • Figure 13

    The SEM images of CPL-1 synthesized from aqueous solutions. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [162]. Copyright 2017, Elsevier.

  • Figure 14

    Schematic illustration of mechanochemical synthesis of a series of CPLs. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [165]. Copyright 2012, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Table 1   MOFs synthesized only using water as the solvent

    No.

    MOFs

    Synthesis conditions

    Refs.

    1

    MIL-34

    Water (180°C/10 d)

    [177]

    2

    MIL-69

    Water (210°C/16 h)

    [178]

    3

    MIL-88A

    Water (65°C/2 h)

    [179]

    4

    MIL-91

    Water (60°C/0.5 h)

    [180]

    5

    MIL-96

    Water (210°C/24 h)

    [181]

    6

    MIL-100

    Water (210°C/5 min)

    [182]

    7

    MIL-110

    Water (210°C/15 min)

    [182]

    8

    MIL-118

    Water (210°C/24 h)

    [183]

    9

    MIL-121

    Water (210°C/24 h)

    [184]

    10

    MIL-127

    Water (85°C/24 h)

    [185]

    11

    MIL-129

    Water (210°C/24 h)

    [186]

    12

    MIL-140A

    Water (110°C/24 h)

    [187]

    13

    CAU-11

    Water (150°C/12 h)

    [188]

    14

    CAU-12

    Water (170°C/5 h) MWa heating

    [188]

    15

    CAU-15

    Water (100°C/3 h) MWa heating

    [189]

    16

    CAU-28

    Water (80°C/1 h) MWa heating

    [190]

    17

    Al-PCP

    Water (180°C/24 h)

    [191]

    18

    Al-PMOF

    Water (180°C/16 h)

    [192]

    Microwave.

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