Post-annealing tailored 3D cross-linked TiNb2O7 nanorod electrode: towards superior lithium storage for flexible lithium-ion capacitors

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  • ReceivedOct 14, 2019
  • AcceptedDec 1, 2019
  • PublishedDec 30, 2019



the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51672205,21673169,51972257)

the National Key R&D Program of China(2016YFA0202602)

and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province(2018CFB581)


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51672205, 21673169 and 51972257), the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFA0202602), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province (2018CFB581).

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Dong H and Lei T performed the experiments; Deng B wrote the paper with support from Liu J, Xiao L and Yue N. All authors contributed to the general discussion.

Author information

Jinping Liu received his PhD degree from Central China Normal University (CCNU) in June 2009. During 2008–2011, he did visiting and post-doctoral research at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore. He is currently Chair Professor at Wuhan University of Technology. The research interests of Dr. Liu’s group include the synthesis of nanostructures and their electrochemical applications (batteries, supercapacitors and electrocatalysis).

Supplementary data

Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    Schematic illustration of the merits of TNO electrode architecture for Li-ion storage.

  • Figure 2

    (a) SEM images of TNO-750-7h (optimized). (b) Cross-sectional image of TNO-750-7h. (c, d) TEM images and SAED pattern of the nanorods from TNO-750-7h. (e) Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) elemental mapping images of TNO-750-7h. (f) SEM images of TNO-750-5h.

  • Figure 3

    (a) XRD patterns for TNO materials on the carbon cloth. (b) XRD patterns for TNO powder materials. (c–f) XPS spectra of TNO materials on the carbon cloth.

  • Figure 4

    Li-storage performances of TNO anodes. (a) The discharge/charge profiles at 0.5 C in the initial two cycles. (b) Rate performance of TNO anodes. (c) Typical discharge and charge curves of TNO-750-7h at various rates. (d) Cycling performance between 1.1 and 3.0 V at 10 C.

  • Figure 5

    (a, b) CV profiles of TNO-750-7h at various sweeping rates. (c, d) Plots of the peak current with sweeping rates for TNO-750-7h and TNO-700-5h.

  • Figure 6

    (a) Nyquist plots for the impedance data of TNO-750-7h at different charged states (experimental and fitted data in dots and solid lines, respectively). (b–d) Plots of Rct, Rp and DLi+ with the discharge capacity for TNO-750-7h and TNO-700-5h.

  • Figure 7

    (a) Typical charge/discharge profiles for the model LIC at various rates. (b) Rate performance of the model LIC. (c) Cycling performance of the model LIC at 10 C. Insets show the optical images of a while LED indicator lit up by the LIC. (d) Charge/discharge profiles for the model LIC based on TNO-750-7h with or without continuous bending. Insets show continuous bending of TNO-750-7h. (e) Ragone plot of gravimetric energy density versus power density. (f) Ragone plot of volumetric energy density versus power density. Some previously reported data are also included for comparison.


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