Pseudocapacitive sodium storage of Fe1−xS@N-doped carbon for low-temperature operation

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  • ReceivedOct 12, 2019
  • AcceptedNov 14, 2019
  • PublishedDec 13, 2019


Funded by

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21873018,21573036,21274017)

and the open project of the Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Organic Functional Molecular Design & Synthesis(130028655)


This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21873018, 21573036 and 21274017), and the open project of Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Organic Functional Molecular Design & Synthesis (130028655). Jilin Provincial Research Center of Advanced Energy Materials (Northeast Normal University) is gratefully acknowledged.

Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Contributions statement

Fan H and Qin B designed and prepared the materials; Wang Z finished the theoretical calculation; Li H supervised the revision of the paper; Guo J synthesized the cathode materials; Wu X and Zhang J supervised the analysis of the whole work. All authors took part in the general discussion.

Author information

Honghong Fan received her bachelor degree in South-Central University for Nationalities in 2015. Now she is a PhD candidate in Northeast Normal University. Her research topic is mainly focused on the synthesis of metal sulfides/oxides and their composites for energy storage devices.

Xinglong Wu received his PhD from the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ICCAS) in 2011. After continuing a two-years postdoctoral working at ICCAS, he moved to Northeast Normal University as an associate professor in 2013, and became a full professor in 2018. His current research interests focus on the advanced materials for energy storage devices such as Na/K/Li-ion batteries and dual-ion batteries, and the reuse and recycle of spent Li-ion batteries.

Jingping Zhang is a full professor of physical chemistry of Northeast Normal University, China. She got her BSc in chemistry, MSc in physical chemistry, PhD in inorganic chemistry at Northeast Normal University. Currently, Dr. Zhang’s research focuses on the mechanism for novel organic reaction and the design of functional materials such as lithium/sodium ion battery materials. She has published more than 300 papers in reputed journals.


Supplementary information

Supporting data are available in the online version of the paper.


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  • Figure 1

    (a–c) SEM images and (d, e) TEM images of the final product of Fe1−xS@NC. The highlighted part of the frame in (e) is the nitrogen-doped carbon on the surface of the sample. (f) HRTEM image of the Fe1−xS@NC sheets. (g–k) Elemental mapping images of the Fe1−xS@NC, clearly revealing that the elements in the composite are evenly distributed.

  • Scheme 1

    Formation mechanism of the Fe1−xS@NC composite with novel agaric-like structure (RT: room temperature).

  • Figure 2

    (a) The crystal structure, (b) calculated DOS curve, and (c) XRD pattern of the Fe1−xS@NC. XPS spectra of the Fe1−xS@NC: (d) survey spectrum, (e) Fe 2P spectrum, (f) S 2p spectrum.

  • Figure 3

    Na-storage properties of the Fe1−xS@NC electrode as an anode for SIBs. (a) CV curves for the initial five cycles at 0.1 mV s−1. (b) The specific capacities of Fe1−xS@NC at different current densities. (c) Galvanostatic (100–8000 mA g−1) curves at different current densities. (d) Rate-capability comparisons of Fe1−xS@NC anode with some other reported metal sulfide anodes for SIBs. (e) The cycling performance of Fe1−xS@NC.

  • Figure 4

    (a) The rate capability of Fe1−xS@NC at varied low temperatures (−25 and 0°C), and (b) rate-performance comparisons of Fe1−xS@NC at −25 and 0°C.

  • Figure 5

    Electrode kinetic analyses on the Fe1−xS@NC electrode. (a) CV curves and (b) corresponding linear fitting of logi and logv at varied scan rates. (c) CV curve with the pseudocapacitive contribution displayed by the prasinous region at a scan rate of 0.5 mV s−1. (d) Histogram showing the variation of pseudocapacitive fraction for Na-storage along with the scan rates.

  • Figure 6

    The energy storage performances of Fe1−xS@NC//NVPOF full batteries. (a) The schematic diagram, (b) charge/discharge curves, and (c) rate capability of the Fe1−xS@NC//NVPOF full battery. (d) The photograph exhibits a pig-like LED lighted by one full battery.


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