logo

Size-dependent mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms in Cu/NbMoTaW nanolaminates

More info
  • ReceivedJul 31, 2019
  • AcceptedSep 23, 2019
  • PublishedNov 7, 2019

Abstract


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51621063,51722104,51625103,51790482,51761135031,51571157)

the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFA0700701,2017YFB0702301)

and the 111 Project 2.0 of China(BP2018008)

China Postdoctoral Science Foundation(2017T100744)

Shaanxi Province innovative talents promotion Projects(2018KJXX-004)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51621063, 51722104, 51625103, 51790482, 51761135031 and 51571157), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0700701 and 2017YFB0702301), the 111 Project 2.0 of China (BP2018008), the International Joint Laboratory for Micro/Nano Manufacturing and Measurement Technologies, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (xzy022019071). Zhang J is grateful for the Fok Ying-Tong Education Foundation (161096), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2017T100744) and Shaanxi Province innovative talents promotion Projects (2018KJXX-004). Wu K thanks the support from China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M602811). We thank Dr. Guo SW of Xi’an Jiaotong University (XJTU) and Dr. Li J at the Instrument Analysis Center of XJTU for their great assistance in TEM analysis.


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Sun J and Liu G supervised the project. Zhang J initiated the research concept. Zhao Y, Wang Y and Wu K conducted the experiments. Zhang J, Liu G and Sun J interpreted the results and wrote the manuscript, with significant input from all other authors.


Author information

Yufang Zhao received her BSc from the Xi’an Jiaotong University in 2016 and is now a PhD candidate under the supervision of Prof. Jun Sun at the College of Material Science and Engineering in Xi’an Jiaotong University. Her current research interest is the mechanical behavior of nanolaminates.


Jinyu Zhang earned his BSc degree from Lan-zhou University of Technology (2005), and PhD degree (2011) in material science and engineering from Xi’an Jiaotong University. He joined Prof. Liu Gang’s group in 2012 and was promoted to professor in 2017. His research focuses on the strengthening & toughening and deformation of nanostructured metals.


Gang Liu obtained his BSc degree from Wuhan University of Science and Technology (1996) and PhD degree in material science and engineering from Xi’an Jiaotong University in 2002. In 2005, he joined Prof. Jun Sun’s group as an associate professor and was promoted to professor in 2008. His current research focuses on the aging dynamics of aluminum alloy and its simulation, and quantitative relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties of materials.


Jun Sun obtained his BSc degree from Jilin University (1982) and PhD degree in material science and engineering from Xi’an Jiaotong University in 1989. In 2002, he joined the State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials in Xi’an Jiaotong University, where he is currently professor and group leader. His research focuses on the multiscale effect of materials’ deformation and transformation, and microstructure optimization and mechanical properties enhancement of metals.


References

[1] Yeh JW, Chen SK, Lin SJ, et al. Nanostructured high-entropy alloys with multiple principal elements: Novel alloy design concepts and outcomes. Adv Eng Mater, 2004, 6: 299-303 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Cantor B, Chang ITH, Knight P, et al. Microstructural development in equiatomic multicomponent alloys. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2004, 375-377: 213-218 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Zhang Y, Zuo TT, Tang Z, et al. Microstructures and properties of high-entropy alloys. Prog Mater Sci, 2014, 61: 1-93 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Zhang W, Liaw PK, Zhang Y. Science and technology in high-entropy alloys. Sci China Mater, 2018, 61: 2-22 CrossRef Google Scholar

[5] Ganji RS, Sai Karthik P, Bhanu Sankara Rao K, et al. Strengthening mechanisms in equiatomic ultrafine grained AlCoCrCuFeNi high-entropy alloy studied by micro- and nanoindentation methods. Acta Mater, 2017, 125: 58-68 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Zou Y, Ma H, Spolenak R. Ultrastrong ductile and stable high-entropy alloys at small scales. Nat Commun, 2015, 6: 7748 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[7] He JY, Liu WH, Wang H, et al. Effects of al addition on structural evolution and tensile properties of the FeCoNiCrMn high-entropy alloy system. Acta Mater, 2014, 62: 105-113 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Li D, Li C, Feng T, et al. High-entropy Al0.3CoCrFeNi alloy fibers with high tensile strength and ductility at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. Acta Mater, 2017, 123: 285-294 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Liu J, Guo X, Lin Q, et al. Excellent ductility and serration feature of metastable cocrfeni high-entropy alloy at extremely low temperatures. Sci China Mater, 2019, 62: 853-863 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Juan CC, Tsai MH, Tsai CW, et al. Enhanced mechanical properties of HfMoTaTiZr and HfMoNbTaTiZr refractory high-entropy alloys. Intermetallics, 2015, 62: 76-83 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Tsai MH, Yeh JW, Gan JY. Diffusion barrier properties of AlMoNbSiTaTiVZr high-entropy alloy layer between copper and silicon. Thin Solid Films, 2008, 516: 5527-5530 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[12] Tang Z, Yuan T, Tsai CW, et al. Fatigue behavior of a wrought Al0.5CoCrCuFeNi two-phase high-entropy alloy. Acta Mater, 2015, 99: 247-258 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Gludovatz B, Hohenwarter A, Catoor D, et al. A fracture-resistant high-entropy alloy for cryogenic applications. Science, 2014, 345: 1153-1158 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[14] Maiti S, Steurer W. Structural-disorder and its effect on mechanical properties in single-phase TaNbHfZr high-entropy alloy. Acta Mater, 2016, 106: 87-97 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Schuh B, Mendez-Martin F, Völker B, et al. Mechanical properties, microstructure and thermal stability of a nanocrystalline CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy after severe plastic deformation. Acta Mater, 2015, 96: 258-268 CrossRef Google Scholar

[16] Fu Z, Chen W, Wen H, et al. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in an fcc structured single-phase nanocrystalline Co25Ni25Fe25Al7.5Cu17.5 high-entropy alloy. Acta Mater, 2016, 107: 59-71 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Fan JT, Zhang LJ, Yu PF, et al. A novel high-entropy alloy with a dendrite-composite microstructure and remarkable compression performance. Scripta Mater, 2019, 159: 18-23 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Lu K, Lu L, Suresh S. Strengthening materials by engineering coherent internal boundaries at the nanoscale. Science, 2009, 324: 349-352 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[19] Ritchie RO. The conflicts between strength and toughness. Nat Mater, 2011, 10: 817-822 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[20] Misra A, Verdier M, Lu YC, et al. Structure and mechanical properties of Cu-X (X = Nb, Cr, Ni) nanolayered composites. Scripta Mater, 1998, 39: 555-560 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Yan JW, Zhu XF, Yang B, et al. Shear stress-driven refreshing capability of plastic deformation in nanolayered metals. Phys Rev Lett, 2013, 110: 155502 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[22] Niu JJ, Zhang JY, Liu G, et al. Size-dependent deformation mechanisms and strain-rate sensitivity in nanostructured Cu/X (X=Cr, Zr) multilayer films. Acta Mater, 2012, 60: 3677-3689 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Beyerlein IJ, Wang J. Interface-driven mechanisms in cubic/noncubic nanolaminates at different scales. MRS Bull, 2019, 44: 31-39 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Beyerlein IJ, Demkowicz MJ, Misra A, et al. Defect-interface interactions. Prog Mater Sci, 2015, 74: 125-210 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Liu Y, Bufford D, Wang H, et al. Mechanical properties of highly textured Cu/Ni multilayers. Acta Mater, 2011, 59: 1924-1933 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Zhang JY, Wu K, Zhang LY, et al. Unraveling the correlation between Hall-Petch slope and peak hardness in metallic nanolaminates. Int J Plast, 2017, 96: 120-134 CrossRef Google Scholar

[27] Knorr I, Cordero NM, Lilleodden ET, et al. Mechanical behavior of nanoscale Cu/PdSi multilayers. Acta Mater, 2013, 61: 4984-4995 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Fan Z, Xue S, Wang J, et al. Unusual size dependent strengthening mechanisms of Cu/amorphous CuNb multilayers. Acta Mater, 2016, 120: 327-336 CrossRef Google Scholar

[29] Liu Y, Yang KM, Hay J, et al. The effect of coherent interface on strain-rate sensitivity of highly textured Cu/Ni and Cu/V multilayers. Scripta Mater, 2019, 162: 33-37 CrossRef Google Scholar

[30] Wang YQ, Zhang JY, Liang XQ, et al. Size- and constituent-dependent deformation mechanisms and strain rate sensitivity in nanolaminated crystalline Cu/amorphous Cu-Zr films. Acta Mater, 2015, 95: 132-144 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Chen J, Lu L, Lu K. Hardness and strain rate sensitivity of nanocrystalline cu. Scripta Mater, 2006, 54: 1913-1918 CrossRef Google Scholar

[32] Wei Q, Ramesh KT, Ma E, et al. Plastic flow localization in bulk tungsten with ultrafine microstructure. Appl Phys Lett, 2005, 86: 101907 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[33] Karimpoor A. High strength nanocrystalline cobalt with high tensile ductility. Scripta Mater, 2003, 49: 651-656 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Zhang JY, Zeng FL, Wu K, et al. Size-dependent plastic deformation characteristics in He-irradiated nanostructured Cu/Mo multilayers: Competition between dislocation-boundary and dislocation-bubble interactions. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2016, 673: 530-540 CrossRef Google Scholar

[35] Feng XB, Zhang JY, Wang YQ, et al. Size effects on the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline NbMoTaW refractory high entropy alloy thin films. Int J Plast, 2017, 95: 264-277 CrossRef Google Scholar

[36] Bhattacharyya D, Mara NA, Dickerson P, et al. Transmission electron microscopy study of the deformation behavior of Cu/Nb and Cu/Ni nanoscale multilayers during nanoindentation. J Mater Res, 2011, 24: 1291-1302 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[37] Li YP, Zhu XF, Tan J, et al. Comparative investigation of strength and plastic instability in Cu/Au and Cu/Cr multilayers by indentation. J Mater Res, 2009, 24: 728-735 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[38] Wen S, Zong R, Zeng F, et al. Evaluating modulus and hardness enhancement in evaporated Cu/W multilayers. Acta Mater, 2007, 55: 345-351 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Wei MZ, Cao ZH, Shi J, et al. Anomalous plastic deformation in nanoscale Cu/Ta multilayers. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2014, 598: 355-359 CrossRef Google Scholar

[40] Zeng Y, Hunter A, Beyerlein IJ, et al. A phase field dislocation dynamics model for a bicrystal interface system: An investigation into dislocation slip transmission across cube-on-cube interfaces. Int J Plast, 2016, 79: 293-313 CrossRef Google Scholar

[41] Subedi S, Beyerlein IJ, LeSar R, et al. Strength of nanoscale metallic multilayers. Scripta Mater, 2018, 145: 132-136 CrossRef Google Scholar

[42] Asaro RJ, Suresh S. Mechanistic models for the activation volume and rate sensitivity in metals with nanocrystalline grains and nano-scale twins. Acta Mater, 2005, 53: 3369-3382 CrossRef Google Scholar

[43] Misra A, Hirth JP, Hoagland RG. Length-scale-dependent deformation mechanisms in incoherent metallic multilayered composites. Acta Mater, 2005, 53: 4817-4824 CrossRef Google Scholar

[44] Chen Y, Liu Y, Sun C, et al. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in Cu/Fe multilayers. Acta Mater, 2012, 60: 6312-6321 CrossRef Google Scholar

[45] Rao SI, Hazzledine PM. Atomistic simulations of dislocation-interface interactions in the Cu-Ni multilayer system. Philos Mag A, 2000, 80: 2011-2040 CrossRef Google Scholar

[46] Koehler JS. Attempt to design a strong solid. Phys Rev B, 1970, 2: 547–551. Google Scholar

[47] Zou Y, Maiti S, Steurer W, et al. Size-dependent plasticity in an Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 refractory high-entropy alloy. Acta Mater, 2014, 65: 85-97 CrossRef Google Scholar

[48] Zhang X, Godfrey A, Huang X, et al. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire. Acta Mater, 2011, 59: 3422-3430 CrossRef Google Scholar

[49] Kapp MW, Hohenwarter A, Wurster S, et al. Anisotropic deformation characteristics of an ultrafine- and nanolamellar pearlitic steel. Acta Mater, 2016, 106: 239-248 CrossRef Google Scholar

[50] Chen W, Zhang J, Cao S, et al. Strong deformation anisotropies of ω-precipitates and strengthening mechanisms in Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al alloy micropillars: Precipitates shearing vs precipitates disordering. Acta Mater, 2016, 117: 68-80 CrossRef Google Scholar

[51] Li JCM, Chou YT. The role of dislocations in the flow stress grain size relationships. Metall Materi Trans, 1970, 1: 1145-1159 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[52] Malow TR, Koch CC, Miraglia PQ, et al. Compressive mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline Fe investigated with an automated ball indentation technique. Mater Sci Eng: A, 1998, 252: 36–43. Google Scholar

[53] Cheng S, Ma E, Wang Y, et al. Tensile properties of in situ consolidated nanocrystalline Cu. Acta Mater, 2005, 53: 1521-1533 CrossRef Google Scholar

[54] Bouaziz O. Strain-hardening of twinning-induced plasticity steels. Scripta Mater, 2012, 66: 982-985 CrossRef Google Scholar

[55] Fan Z, Liu Y, Xue S, et al. Layer thickness dependent strain rate sensitivity of Cu/amorphous CuNb multilayer. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 110: 161905 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[56] Wei Q, Cheng S, Ramesh KT, et al. Effect of nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain sizes on the strain rate sensitivity and activation volume: fcc versus bcc metals. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2004, 381: 71-79 CrossRef Google Scholar

[57] Dalla Torre FH, Dubach A, Siegrist ME, et al. Negative strain rate sensitivity in bulk metallic glass and its similarities with the dynamic strain aging effect during deformation. Appl Phys Lett, 2006, 89: 091918 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (a) XRD patterns for Cu/HEA NLs with different layer thicknesses h. Representative cross-sectional TEM images of Cu/HEA NLs with h = 10 (c) and 50 nm (e) showing clearly modulated structure. Typical HRTEM images of Cu/HEA NLs with h = 5 (b) and 10 nm (d) showing the amorphous-like microstructure of the HEA layers. (f) HRTEM images of Cu/HEA NLs with h = 50 nm. The corresponding SADPs inserted in (c, e) exhibit strong Cu (111) & (200) and HEA (110) & (200) textures.

  • Figure 2

    (a) The typical XTEM image of the indented Cu/HEA NLs with h = 50 nm, showing a shear band. (b) The magnified view of the boxed region in (a), showing fracture appears in the hard NbMoTaW layers of the highly deformed regions. (c) The HRTEM image of the boxed region in (b). (d) The plastic strain as a function of the number of layers for each constituent layer along the red solid line in (a), showing Cu layers dominate the plastic deformation.

  • Figure 3

    (a) Typical load-depth curves of Cu/HEA NLs with different h. The dependence of hardness H on the layer thickness h for (b) Cu/HEA NLs, compared with the hardness of NLs calculated from ROM. (c) The hardness H as a function of h−1/2 for the present Cu/HEA NLs, compared with the reported FCC/BCC Cu/Nb [20], Cu/Cr [22], Cu/Mo [34], Cu/W [38] and Cu/Ta [39] NLs. The corresponding hardnesses HROM calculated from ROM are displayed at the right side in (c), as indicated by the lines with different colors.

  • Figure 4

    (a) Log hardness H vs. log strain rate plots of Cu/HEA NLs with different h, in which the slope of each line represents the SRS index m. (b) The m of Cu/HEA NLs as a function of h, compared with the reported Cu/Mo NLs [34], respectively. The lines in (b) are calculated by the present model. For details see the text.

qqqq

Contact and support