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Recent progress and future prospects of sodium-ion capacitors

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  • ReceivedSep 4, 2019
  • AcceptedSep 19, 2019
  • PublishedNov 4, 2019

Abstract


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51672308,51972025,61888102)


Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51672308, 51972025 and 61888102).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

The paper was written with contributions from all authors. All authors have given approval to the final version of the paper.


Author information

Rui Jia received her BE degree in 2015 from Huaqiao University and ME degree in 2018 from Qingdao University. She is a PhD candidate at the College of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing. Her research interests mainly focus on sodium-ion batteries and hybrid supercapacitors.


Guozhen Shen received his BSc degree (1999) in chemistry from Anhui Normal University and PhD degree (2003) in chemistry from the University of Science and technology of China. He joined the Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences as a Professor in 2013. His current research focuses on flexible electronics and printable electronics, including transistors, photodetectors, sensors and flexible energy storage and conversion devices.


Di Chen received her BSc degree (1999) in chemistry from Anhui Normal University and PhD degree (2005) in chemistry from the University of Science and technology of China. She joined the University of Science and Technology Beijing as a Professor in 2014. Her current research focuses on energy storage materials and devices.


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  • Figure 1

    (a) Schematic diagram of the sodium-ion diffusion and sodiation in GDY-NS materials. (b) Top view SEM image of GDY-NS on the Cu substrate. (c) Rate performance of the GDY-NS//AC SICs at various current densities from 50 mA g−1 to 5 A g−1. (d) The cycling performance of the GDY-NS//AC SICs at the current density of 1 A g−1. Reproduced with permission from [42]. Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society. (e) Schematic illustration of the preparation of EDHPC and the fabrication of EDHPC//EDHPC SICs. (f, g) XPS survey spectrum and XRD pattern of EDHPC. (h, i) Charge-discharge curves of two half cells and the EDHPC//EDHPC SICs. (j) Ragone plots of SICs. Reproduced with permission from [44]. Copyright 2018, Springer.

  • Figure 2

    (a) Schematic illustration of Gr-Nb2O5 composites. (b) SEM image of Gr-Nb2O5 composites. (c) The long-term cycling performance of the Gr-Nb2O5//AC SICs at 1 A g−1. The inset shows the rate capability of the SICs at various current densities from 0.03 to 2 A g−1. Reproduced with permission from [52]. Copyright 2018, Wiley-VCH. (d, e) SEM and HRTEM images of TiO2@CNT@C. (f) Charge-discharge curves of TiO2@CNT@C//BAC SICs at various current densities in the potential of 1–4 V. Reproduced with permission from [55]. Copyright 2017, Wiley-VCH. (g) Field emission SEM (FESEM) image of NTO/ACF nanocomposite. (h) Cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves of the ACF//NTO/ACF SICs at different current densities. (i) Ragone plots compared with other reports. Reproduced with permission from [63]. Copyright 2018, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 3

    (a, b) SEM and HRTEM images of the E-MoS2/carbon fibers. (c) Structural models of the MoS2 with different interlayer spacings. (d) GCD curves of the E-MoS2/carbon fibers//AC SICs at various current densities. Reproduced with permission from [70]. Copyright 2017, Elsevier. (e) GCD curves of the VN-MWCNT//MnO2-MWCNT SICs at different currents. (f) Ragone plot of the hybrid SICs. The insets display the VN-MWCNT//MnO2-MWCNT coin cell that used for tests and powering LED bulbs. Reproduced with permission from [75]. Copyright 2014, Elsevier. (g) Schematic of the synthesis process for Ti(O,N)-MP-NWs. (h) Elemental mapping images of Ti(O,N)-700. (i) The cycling performance of the Ti(O,N)//AC SICs. (j) Ragone plots of various supercapacitors. Reproduced with permission from [76]. Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 4

    (a) Schematic illustration of the reaction mechanism of Ti2CTx by electrochemical activation. (b, c) TEM images of the pristine Ti2CTx and activated Ti2CTx after the first cycle. (d) The cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency of the Ti2CTx//Na2Fe2(SO4)3 SICs in the voltage of 0.1–3.8 V. Reproduced with permission from [81]. Copyright 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited. (e) Schematic diagram of the self-assembly preparation of Ti3C2Tx/CNT. (f) Cross-section SEM image of porous Ti3C2Tx/CNT. Reproduced with permission from [80]. Copyright 2016, Elsevier.

  • Figure 5

    (a) HRTEM image of C-NVP. (b, c) GCD curves and cycling performance of the C-NVP//CDCs SICs. (d) Nyquist plots of the SICs before and after 10,000 cycles between 200 and 100 MHz. Reproduced with permission from [89]. Copyright 2016, Wiley-VCH. (e) TEM image of GNTP. The inset shows the HRTEM image of GNTP. (f) Operating mechanism of the GNTP//GNS SICs. (g) GCD curves at various current densities. (h) Comparison of the GNTP//GNS SICs performance with other systems. Reproduced with permission from [90]. Copyright 2017, Wiley-VCH.

  • Figure 6

    (a–c) Morphological and electrochemical performance of the AC cathode. Reproduced with permission from [52]. Copyright 2018, Wiley-VCH. (d) The process of cathode/anode materials synthesis and charge storage mechanisms of the SICs. (e) SEM image of PSNC-3-800. (f) Ragone plot of the PSNC-3-800//PSOC-A at different temperatures. Reproduced with permission from [102]. Copyright 2015, Royal Society of Chemistry. (g) Schematic diagram of the SICs with j-HPC. (h) SEM image of j-HPC. (i) GCD curves of the pre-sodiated j-HPC//j-HPC SICs at different current densities. Reproduced with permission from [109]. Copyright 2018, Elsevier.

  • Figure 7

    (a) Schematic diagram of the HC//V2C SICs. (b) GCD curves at different rates. (c) Capacity versus cycle number. Reproduced with permission from [36]. Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society. (d, e) SEM images of Ti3C2Tx before and after ultrasonic treatment. (f, g) Rate performance and cycling properties of the MnO2//Ti3C2Tx SICs. Reproduced with permission from [47]. Copyright 2017, Wiley-VCH.

  • Figure 8

    (a) Schematic illustration of the crystal structure of MnHCF. (b) The cycling performance of MnHCF//Fe3O4/rGO SICs. (c) Ragone plots of the hybrid device. The inset shows that a LED was lighted by two SICs in series. Reproduced with permission from [49]. Copyright 2015, Royal Society of Chemistry. (d) TEM image of CoHCF nanoparticles. The inset is the HRTEM image of CoHCF. (e, f) GCD curves and Ragone plots of the CoHCF//CMS SICs. Reproduced with permission from [117]. Copyright 2015, Elsevier. (g, h) Morphology of the CoHCF submicrocube. (i, j) GCD curves and Ragone plots of the CoHCF//AC hybrid SICs. Reproduced with permission from [119]. Copyright 2017, Elsevier.

  • Figure 9

    (a) Schematic of desalination by hybrid capacitive deionization (HCDI). (b) Specific capacity versus cycle number. Reproduced with permission from [127]. Copyright 2014, Royal Society of Chemistry. (c) GCD profiles of the Na4Mn9O18//AC device in 2 mol L−1 Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Reproduced with permission from [41]. Copyright 2017, Wiley-VCH. (d) Capacitance of NaMPO4 (M= Ni, Co, Fe and Mn) in different aqueous electrolytes. Reproduced with permission from [120]. Copyright 2014, Royal Society of Chemistry. (e) CV curves of the two half cells and hybrid Na2Ti2O4(OH)2//RHDPC-KOH SIC in 1 mol L−1 NaPF6 organic electrolyte. Reproduced with permission from [106]. Copyright 2017, Elsevier. (f) Schematic illustration of the charge-storage mechanisms for the MoSe2/G//AC in 1 mol L−1 NaClO4 organic electrolyte. Reproduced with permission from [72]. Copyright 2018, Elsevier. (g) Voltage profiles of the SICs at 25 mA g−1. (h) Ragone plot of the Li4Ti5O12//AC SICs with a comparison to the reports. Reproduced with permission from [100]. Copyright 2018, Elsevier.

  • Figure 10

    (a–c) The LED bulb, fan and table lamp were powered by coin, pouch and flexible all-solid-state SICs (from left to right). Reproduced with permission from [42], [40] and [62]. Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society; Copyright 2015, Elsevier and Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society, respectively. (d, e) Schematic diagram of ESSs operation in urban rail on-board and way-side. Reproduced with permission from [133]. Copyright 2013, Elsevier.

  • Table 1   Summary of SICs based on both carbonaceous anode and cathode

    Anode/cathode

    Electrolyte

    Voltage (V)

    Max E (W h kg−1)/max P (W kg−1)

    Cycle performance

    Ref.

    j-HPC// j-HPC

    1 mol L−1 NaPF6

    1−3.8

    116.70/11,121.54

    90% over 5000 cycles

    [109]

    CS-800//CS-800-6

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    2−4

    52.2/3000

    85.7 over 2000 cycles

    [39]

    HPC-550//HPC-800

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0−4

    103.2/15,900

    81.1% over 2500 cycles

    [31]

    3DCFs//SDAC

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0−4

    133.2/20,000

    86% over 4000 cycles

    [104]

    DCDC-K//MCC

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0−4

    110.8/12,100

    85% over 10000 cycles

    [29]

    AC//P-aCNs

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0−2

    27.9/1379.31

    96% over 100,000 cycles

    [30]

    HC//BG

    1 mol L−1 NaPF6

    0−4

    108/6100

    97% over 5000 cycles

    [110]

    EDHPC//EDHPC

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0−4

    84/9053

    67% over 5000 cycles

    [44]

    NOFC//PSNC

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0−4

    111/14,550

    90% over 5000 cycles

    [108]

    DC//NC

    1 mol L−1 NaPF6

    0−4.4

    157/2356

    70% over 1000 cycles

    [111]

    GDY-NS//AC

    1 mol L−1 NaPF6

    2−4

    182.3/15,000

    90% over 3000 cycles

    [42]

    HP-CNWs//FM

    1 mol L−1 NaPF6

    0.5−4.2

    130.6/15,260

    85.4% over 3000 cycles

    [103]

    3DFC//3DFAC

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0−4

    111/20,000

    75.6% over 15,000 cycles

    [112]

    MCMB/AC

    1 mol L−1 NaPF6

    1−4

    93.5/2832

    98.3% over 3000 cycles

    [40]

    DC//MG

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0−4.2

    168/2432

    85% over 1200 cycles

    [101]

    PSOC//PNSC

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    1.5−4.2

    201.76/16,500

    72% over 10,000 cycles

    [102]

    SCN-A//SCN-A

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0−4

    112/12,000

    85% over 3000 cycles

    [43]

    UTH-CN//AC

    1 mol L−1 NaClO4

    0.5−4

    110/10,000

    70% over 1000 cycles

    [27]