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Recent progress in atomic layer deposition of molybdenum disulfide: a mini review

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  • ReceivedDec 11, 2018
  • AcceptedFeb 12, 2019
  • PublishedMar 4, 2019

Abstract


Funded by

through a grant to Lei Liu(F/4736-2)

the grants from Top 6 High-Level Talents Program of Jiangsu Province(2017-GDZB-006,Class,A)

the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province(BK20181274)

the Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Southeast University(YBPY1703)

the open research fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments

Southeast University(KF201806)

the Scientific Research Fund of Nanjing Institute of Technology(YKJ201859)

the Tribo1ogy Science Fund of State Key Laboratory of Tribology(SKLTKF15A11)

Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing

Central South University(Kfkt2016-11)

Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science(HZ2017-KF05)

Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of solid lubrication(LSL-1607)

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51822501)

the Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young Scholar of Jiangsu Province(BK20170023)

the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(3202006301,3202006403)

Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Province

the International Foundation for Science

Stockholm

Sweden

the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

the Hague

Netherlands


Acknowledgment

This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51822501), the Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young Scholar of Jiangsu Province (BK20170023), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (3202006301 and 3202006403), Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Province, the International Foundation for Science, Stockholm, Sweden, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, the Hague, Netherlands, through a grant to Lei Liu (F/4736-2), the grants from Top 6 High-Level Talents Program of Jiangsu Province (2017-GDZB-006, Class A), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK20181274), the Scientific Research Foundation of Graduate School of Southeast University (YBPY1703), the Open Research Fund of Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro-Nano Biomedical Instruments, Southeast University (KF201806), the Scientific Research Fund of Nanjing Institute of Technology (YKJ201859), the Tribo1ogy Science Fund of State Key Laboratory of Tribology (SKLTKF15A11), Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University (Kfkt2016-11), Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science (HZ2017-KF05) and Open Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication (LSL-1607).


Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Liu L proposed the topic and outline of the manuscript. Huang Y collected the related information and wrote the manuscript.


Author information

Yazhou Huang received his PhD degree from the School of Mechanical Engineering at Southeast University of China in 2018. He joined Nanjing Institute of Technology as a lecturer in 2018. His research interest is mainly focused on the synthesis of nanomaterials for electronic device applications.


Lei Liu is a Professor of the School of Mechanical Engineering at Southeast University. He is a Distinguished Young Scholar of the National Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, Excellent Young Scholar of the National Science Foundation of China. He received his PhD degree from the University of Science and Technology of China in 2007. His current research interest focuses on the nanomaterials and devices for medical detection.


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  • Figure 1

    Research progress in the preparation of MoS2 by CVD and ALD.

  • Figure 2

    Schematic showing of the ALD of MoS2.

  • Figure 3

    (a) AFM image for the MoS2 film grown on sapphire at 300°C using MoCl5 and H2S. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [29], Copyright 2014, Royal Society of Chemistry. (b) TEM images for the MoS2 film grown on Au at 250°C using MoCl5 and H2S. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [41], Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society. (c) Raman spectra comparing MoS2 films obtained by ALD at 375 and 475°C. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [33], Copyright 2016, American Vacuum Society. (d) AFM image for the MoS2 film grown on SiO2 at 450°C using MoCl5 and H2S. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [36], Copyright 2017, IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • Figure 4

    ALD temperature windows using different precursors. (a) MoCl5 and H2S. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [39], Copyright 2017, Elsevier. (b) Mo(CO)6 and H2S. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [35], Copyright 2014, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 5

    (a) A top view of MoS2. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [49], Copyright 2013, American Vacuum Society. (b) TEM image of MoS2 by ALD on silica nano-bead. (c) d0001 spacing. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [45], Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry. (d) Hydroxyl groups on the surface of the substrate. (e) Water contact angles of Si and Al2O3 substrates. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [39], Copyright 2017, Elsevier. (f) Raman spectra for ALD MoS2 films on etched and unetched substrate. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [33], Copyright 2016, American Vacuum Society.

  • Figure 6

    (a) Raman spectra of the as-deposited and sulfur-annealed MoS2 films. (b) Corresponding photoluminescence spectra. XPS spectra of Mo (c) and S (d). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [33], Copyright 2016, American Vacuum Society.

  • Figure 7

    AFM images for as-grown (a) and annealed (b) MoS2 films on sapphire substrates. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [29], Copyright 2014, Royal Society of Chemistry. (c) Cross-sectional TEM images of the MoS2 film annealed at 900°C. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [30], Copyright 2014, Royal Society of Chemistry. Cross-sectional TEM images of as-grown (d) and sulfurized (e) MoS2 on p-Si wafers at 700°C. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [42], Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 8

    (a) HER polarization curves of bare Au and MoS2/Au. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [31], Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society. (b) HER polarization curves of bare CFP and MoS2/CFP. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [34], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry. (c) PEC HER polarization curves of bare p-Si, as-grown and sulfurized MoS2/p-Si. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [42], Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry. (d) OER polarization curves of bare Co foam and Co@MoS2-500 grown by various cycles. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [43], Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Table 1   Various Mo- and S- precursors for ALD of MoS

    Mo-precursor

    S-precursor

    Temp. (°C)

    Substrate

    GPC (nm/cycle)

    Grain size

    Ref.

    MoCl5

    H2S

    300

    Sapphire

    0.21

    Amorphous

    [29]

    MoCl5

    H2S

    250

    Au

    /

    6.1 nm

    [41]

    MoCl5

    H2S

    375

    SiO2

    0.025

    Amorphous

    [33]

    MoCl5

    H2S

    430–470

    Si, SiO2

    0.38

    35–120 nm

    [39,40]

    MoCl5

    H2S

    450

    SiO2

    0.65

    100 nm

    [36]

    Mo(CO)6

    CH3S2CH3

    100–120

    SiO2

    0.11

    Amorphous

    [30]

    Mo(CO)6

    H2S

    155–175

    Co, SiO2

    0.074

    Amorphous

    [43,35]

    Mo(CO)6

    H2S plasma

    175–200

    SiO2

    0.05

    20 nm

    [37]

    Mo(NMe2)4

    H2S

    60–120

    Al2O3

    /

    Amorphous

    [38]

    Mo(CO)6

    H2S plasma

    200

    Si

    /

    5–20 nm

    [42]

    Mo(thd)3

    H2S

    300

    Si, etc.

    0.025

    10–30 nm

    [46]

    Mo(NMe2)4

    CH3S2CH3

    50

    SiO2

    /

    Amorphous

    [45]

    MoF6

    H2S

    200

    Si

    0.06

    Amorphous

    [47]

  • Table 2   Post-annealing processes of as-grown MoS films

    As-grown

    Post-annealing

    Mo-precursor

    S-precursor

    S/Mo

    Grain size

    Temp. (°C)

    S/Mo

    Grain size

    Atmosphere

    Ref.

    MoCl5

    H2S

    1.97

    Amorphous

    800

    2.03

    20 µm

    S

    [29]

    Mo(CO)6

    CH3S2CH3

    1.21

    Amorphous

    900

    2.01

    Nano-crystalline

    Ar

    [30]

    MoCl5

    H2S

    1.4

    Amorphous

    860–920

    2

    Nano-crystalline

    H2S, S

    [33]

    Mo(CO)6

    H2S

    1.5

    Amorphous

    900

    2

    Nano-crystalline

    H2S, Ar

    [35]

    Mo(NMe2)4

    H2S

    /

    Amorphous

    1,000

    /

    200 nm

    S

    [38]

    Mo(CO)6

    H2S plasma

    1

    6–10 nm

    600

    2

    14 nm

    H2S

    [42]

  • Table 3   Electrocatalytic activity of MoS obtained by ALD

    Sample

    Tafel slope (mV dec−1)

    J0 (μA cm−2)

    TOF at 0.2 V vs. RHE (H2 s−1)

    Ref.

    Bare Au

    88

    0.293

    /

    [31

    ]

    MoS2 (2.0 nm)

    50

    0.024

    /

    MoS2 (9.4 nm)

    47

    0.027

    1.45

    Bare CFP

    /

    /

    /

     

    MoS2 (20 cycles)

    56.6

    0.025

    0.2–0.5

    [34

    ]

    MoS2 (60 cycles)

    56.5

    0.039

    0.3–0.8

    MoS2 (100 cycles)

    55.8

    0.039

    0.4–0.9

    MoS2 (150 cycles)

    55.6

    0.027

    0.3–0.7