logo

SCIENCE CHINA Materials, Volume 61 , Issue 10 : 1257-1277(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s40843-018-9294-5

Two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite: from material properties to device applications

More info
  • ReceivedMar 26, 2018
  • AcceptedMay 3, 2018
  • PublishedJul 5, 2018

Abstract


Funded by

This work is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2016YFA0202401)

the 111 Project(B16016)

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51572080,51702096,U1705256)

and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(2017XS080)


Acknowledgment

This work is supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0202401), the 111 Project (B16016), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51572080, 51702096 and U1705256), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2017XS080).


Interest statement

The authors declare no competing interests.


Contributions statement

Ma S investigated the relevant literature and wrote this manuscript. Cai M and Cheng T helped the logical framework of this manuscript. Dai S, Ding Y and Tan Z carefully reviewed and modified this manuscript. Ding X, Shi X, Alsaedi A and Hayat T gave some valuable suggestions on revision. All authors contributed to the general discussion about this work.


Author information

Shuang Ma obtained her BSc degree from North China Electric Power University in 2015. She is a PhD candidate of the North China Electric Power University under the supervision of Prof. Yong Ding and Prof. Songyuan Dai. Her research interest is perovskite solar cells.


Yong Ding is a lecturer in Beijing Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University. He received his PhD in physical chemistry from Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2011. His research interest is novel-type solar cells, including dye-sensitized solar cells and perovskite solar cells.


Zhan’ao Tan is a full professor in Beijing Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, North China Electric Power University, since 2009, and currently leads the Group of Organic Optoelectronic Materials and Devices. He received his PhD degree in physical chemistry in 2007 from the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences and then came to Pennsylvania State University, USA, as a postdoctoral fellow working on semiconductor quantum dots based light-emitting diodes and photovoltaics from 2007 to 2009. His present research interest includes polymer solar cells, semiconductor nanocrystal based optoelectronics, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, and flow batteries.


Songyuan Dai is a Professor and Dean of Renewable Energy School, North China Electric Power University. He received his BS from Department of Physics, Anhui Normal University in 1987, and his MSc and PhD degrees from Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in 1991, and 2001, respectively. His current research interests include dye-sensitized solar cell, perovskite solar cells, quantum dot solar cells and nanomaterials.


References

[1] Weber D. CH3NH3SnBrxI3-x (x=0–3), ein Sn(II)-System mit kubischer Perowskitstruktur/CH3NH3SnBrxI3-x (x=0–3), a Sn(II)-system with cubic perovskite structure. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B, 1978, 33: 862–865. Google Scholar

[2] Weber D. CH3NH3PbX3, ein Pb(II)-System mit kubischer Perowskitstruktur/CH3NH3PbX3, a Pb(II)-System with cubic perovskite structure. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B, 1978, 33: 1443–1445. Google Scholar

[3] Li M, Wang ZK, Zhuo MP, et al. Pb-Sn-Cu ternary organometallic halide perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2018, 131: 1800258 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[4] Wang ZK, Li M, Yang YG, et al. High efficiency Pb-In binary metal perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 6695-6703 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[5] Sun S, Salim T, Mathews N, et al. The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells. Energy Environ Sci, 2014, 7: 399-407 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Tsai H, Nie W, Blancon JC, et al. High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper perovskite solar cells. Nature, 2016, 536: 312-316 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[7] Lim KG, Kim HB, Jeong J, et al. Boosting the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells using self-organized polymeric hole extraction layers with high work function. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 6461-6466 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[8] Tyagi P, Arveson SM, Tisdale WA. Colloidal organohalide perovskite nanoplatelets exhibiting quantum confinement. J Phys Chem Lett, 2015, 6: 1911-1916 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[9] Li N, Zhu Z, Chueh CC, et al. Mixed cation FAxPEA1-xPbI3 with enhanced phase and ambient stability toward high-performance perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 7: 1601307 CrossRef Google Scholar

[10] Saparov B, Mitzi DB. Organic–inorganic perovskites: structural versatility for functional materials design. Chem Rev, 2016, 116: 4558-4596 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[11] Wang N, Cheng L, Ge R, et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells. Nat Photonics, 2016, 10: 699-704 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[12] Yuan M, Quan LN, Comin R, et al. Perovskite energy funnels for efficient light-emitting diodes. Nat Nanotechnol, 2016, 11: 872-877 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[13] Koh TM, Shanmugam V, Schlipf J, et al. Nanostructuring mixed-dimensional perovskites: a route toward tunable, efficient photovoltaics. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 3653-3661 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[14] Cao DH, Stoumpos CC, Farha OK, et al. 2D homologous perovskites as light-absorbing materials for solar cell applications. J Am Chem Soc, 2015, 137: 7843-7850 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[15] Hu H, Salim T, Chen B, et al. Molecularly engineered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite with multiple quantum well structure for multicolored light-emitting diodes. Sci Rep, 2016, 6: 33546 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[16] Milot RL, Sutton RJ, Eperon GE, et al. Charge-carrier dynamics in 2D hybrid metal–halide perovskites. Nano Lett, 2016, 16: 7001-7007 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[17] Xing G, Mathews N, Sun S, et al. Long-range balanced electron- and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3. Science, 2013, 342: 344-347 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[18] Eperon GE, Burlakov VM, Docampo P, et al. Morphological control for high performance, solution-processed planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2014, 24: 151-157 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] Docampo P, Ball JM, Darwich M, et al. Efficient organometal trihalide perovskite planar-heterojunction solar cells on flexible polymer substrates. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 2761 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[20] Liang PW, Liao CY, Chueh CC, et al. Additive enhanced crystallization of solution-processed perovskite for highly efficient planar-heterojunction solar cells. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 3748-3754 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[21] Xue M, Zhou H, Xu Y, et al. High-performance ultraviolet-visible tunable perovskite photodetector based on solar cell structure. Sci China Mater, 2017, 60: 407-414 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Ding J, Yan Q. Progress in organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskite single crystal: growth techniques and applications. Sci China Mater, 2017, 60: 1063-1078 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Ren Y, Duan B, Xu Y, et al. New insight into solvent engineering technology from evolution of intermediates via one-step spin-coating approach. Sci China Mater, 2017, 60: 392-398 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Pascoe AR, Gu Q, Rothmann MU, et al. Directing nucleation and growth kinetics in solution-processed hybrid perovskite thin-films. Sci China Mater, 2017, 60: 617-628 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Deng Y, Peng E, Shao Y, et al. Scalable fabrication of efficient organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells with doctor-bladed active layers. Energy Environ Sci, 2015, 8: 1544-1550 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Barrows AT, Pearson AJ, Kwak CK, et al. Efficient planar heterojunction mixed-halide perovskite solar cells deposited via spray-deposition. Energy Environ Sci, 2014, 7: 2944-2950 CrossRef Google Scholar

[27] Chen H, Ye F, Tang W, et al. A solvent- and vacuum-free route to large-area perovskite films for efficient solar modules. Nature, 2017, 131: 92-95 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[28] Ye F, Tang W, Xie F, et al. Low-temperature soft-cover deposition of uniform large-scale perovskite films for high-performance solar cells. Adv Mater, 2017, 29: 1701440 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[29] Kind R. Structural phase transitions in perovskite layer structures. Ferroelectrics, 1980, 24: 81-88 CrossRef Google Scholar

[30] Arend H, Huber W, Mischgofsky FH, et al. Layer perovskites of the (CnH2n+1NH3)2MX4 and NH3(CH2)mNH3MX4 families with M = Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn or Pd and X = Cl or Br: Importance, solubilities and simple growth techniques. J Cryst Growth, 1978, 43: 213-223 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[31] Swetha T, Singh SP. Perovskite solar cells based on small molecule hole transporting materials. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3: 18329-18344 CrossRef Google Scholar

[32] Ishihara T, Takahashi J, Goto T. Exciton state in two-dimensional perovskite semiconductor (C10H21NH3)2PbI4. Solid State Commun, 1989, 69: 933-936 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[33] Ishihara T, Takahashi J, Goto T. Optical properties due to electronic transitions in two-dimensional semiconductors (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4. Phys Rev B, 1990, 42: 11099-11107 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[34] Calabrese J, Jones NL, Harlow RL, et al. Preparation and characterization of layered lead halide compounds. J Am Chem Soc, 1991, 113: 2328-2330 CrossRef Google Scholar

[35] Mitzi DB, Feild CA, Harrison WTA, et al. Conducting tin halides with a layered organic-based perovskite structure. Nature, 1994, 369: 467-469 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[36] Papavassiliou GC, Koutselas IB. Structural, optical and related properties of some natural three- and lower-dimensional semiconductor systems. Synth Met, 1995, 71: 1713-1714 CrossRef Google Scholar

[37] Mitzi DB, Chondroudis K, Kagan CR. Design, structure, and optical properties of organic−inorganic perovskites containing an oligothiophene chromophore. Inorg Chem, 1999, 38: 6246-6256 CrossRef Google Scholar

[38] Cheng Z, Lin J. Layered organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites: structure, optical properties, film preparation, patterning and templating engineering. CrystEngComm, 2010, 12: 2646-2662 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Huang TJ, Thiang ZX, Yin X, et al. (CH3NH3)2PdCl4: A compound with two-dimensional organic-inorganic layered perovskite structure. Chem Eur J, 2016, 22: 2146-2152 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[40] Yao K, Wang X, Xu Y, et al. Multilayered perovskite materials based on polymeric-ammonium cations for stable large-area solar cell. Chem Mater, 2016, 28: 3131-3138 CrossRef Google Scholar

[41] Kawano N, Koshimizu M, Sun Y, et al. Effects of organic moieties on luminescence properties of organic–inorganic layered perovskite-type compounds. J Phys Chem C, 2014, 118: 9101-9106 CrossRef Google Scholar

[42] Kitazawa N, Watanabe Y. Optical properties of natural quantum-well compounds (C6H5-CnH2n-NH3)2PbBr4 (n=1–4). J Phys Chem Solids, 2010, 71: 797-802 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[43] Even J, Pedesseau L, Katan C. Understanding quantum confinement of charge carriers in layered 2D hybrid perovskites. ChemPhysChem, 2014, 15: 3733-3741 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[44] Chong WK, Thirumal K, Giovanni D, et al. Dominant factors limiting the optical gain in layered two-dimensional halide perovskite thin films. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2016, 18: 14701-14708 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[45] Kamminga ME, Fang HH, Filip MR, et al. Confinement effects in low-dimensional lead iodide perovskite hybrids. Chem Mater, 2016, 28: 4554-4562 CrossRef Google Scholar

[46] Mitzi DB, Wang S, Feild CA, et al. Conducting layered organic-inorganic halides containing (110)-oriented perovskite sheets. Science, 1995, 267: 1473-1476 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[47] Mitzi DB. Solution-processed inorganic semiconductors. J Mater Chem, 2004, 14: 2355-2365 CrossRef Google Scholar

[48] Mitzi DB, Medeiros DR, Malenfant PRL. Intercalated organic-inorganic perovskites stabilized by fluoroaryl-aryl interactions. Inorg Chem, 2002, 41: 2134-2145 CrossRef Google Scholar

[49] Quan LN, Yuan M, Comin R, et al. Ligand-stabilized reduced-dimensionality perovskites. J Am Chem Soc, 2016, 138: 2649-2655 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[50] Lin Y, Bai Y, Fang Y, et al. Suppressed ion migration in low-dimensional perovskites. ACS Energy Lett, 2017, 2: 1571-1572 CrossRef Google Scholar

[51] Cai B, Li X, Gu Y, et al. Quantum confinement effect of two-dimensional all-inorganic halide perovskites. Sci China Mater, 2017, 60: 811-818 CrossRef Google Scholar

[52] Dou L, Wong AB, Yu Y, et al. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites. Science, 2015, 349: 1518-1521 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[53] Ishihara T. Optical properties of PbI-based perovskite structures. J Lumin, 1994, 60-61: 269-274 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[54] Grancini G, Roldán-Carmona C, Zimmermann I, et al. One-Year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering. Nat Commun, 2017, 8: 15684 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[55] Byun J, Cho H, Wolf C, et al. Efficient visible quasi-2D perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 7515-7520 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[56] Jones ED, Drummond TJ, Hjalmarson HP, et al. Photoluminescence studies of GaAs/AlAs short period superlattices. Superlattices MicroStruct, 1988, 4: 233-236 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[57] Yaffe O, Chernikov A, Norman ZM, et al. Excitons in ultrathin organic-inorganic perovskite crystals. Phys Rev B, 2015, 92: 045414 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[58] Kitazawa N, Aono M, Watanabe Y. Synthesis and luminescence properties of lead-halide based organic–inorganic layered perovskite compounds (CnH2n+1NH3)2PbI4 (n=4, 5, 7, 8 and 9). J Phys Chem Solids, 2011, 72: 1467-1471 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[59] Hong X, Ishihara T, Nurmikko AV. Dielectric confinement effect on excitons in PbI4-based layered semiconductors. Phys Rev B, 1992, 45: 6961-6964 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[60] Savenije TJ, Ponseca Jr. CS, Kunneman L, et al. Thermally activated exciton dissociation and recombination control the carrier dynamics in organometal halide perovskite. J Phys Chem Lett, 2014, 5: 2189-2194 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[61] Yang Y, Ostrowski DP, France RM, et al. Observation of a hot-phonon bottleneck in lead-iodide perovskites. Nat Photonics, 2016, 10: 53-59 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[62] Chondroudis K, Mitzi DB. Electroluminescence from an organic−inorganic perovskite incorporating a quaterthiophene dye within lead halide perovskite layers. Chem Mater, 1999, 11: 3028-3030 CrossRef Google Scholar

[63] Mitzi DB. Templating and structural engineering in organic–inorganic perovskites. J Chem Soc Dalton Trans, 2001, : 1-12 CrossRef Google Scholar

[64] Jeon NJ, Noh JH, Kim YC, et al. Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells. Nat Mater, 2014, 13: 897-903 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[65] Burschka J, Pellet N, Moon SJ, et al. Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells. Nature, 2013, 499: 316-319 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[66] You J, Hong Z, Yang YM, et al. Low-temperature solution-processed perovskite solar cells with high efficiency and flexibility. ACS Nano, 2014, 8: 1674-1680 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[67] Liu D, Kelly TL. Perovskite solar cells with a planar heterojunction structure prepared using room-temperature solution processing techniques. Nat Photonics, 2014, 8: 133-138 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[68] Chen Q, Zhou H, Hong Z, et al. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells via vapor-assisted solution process. J Am Chem Soc, 2013, 136: 622-625 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[69] Xiao M, Huang F, Huang W, et al. A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells. Angew Chem, 2014, 126: 10056-10061 CrossRef Google Scholar

[70] Li X, Bi D, Yi C, et al. A vacuum flash-assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells. Science, 2016, 353: 58-62 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[71] Liu M, Johnston MB, Snaith HJ. Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition. Nature, 2013, 501: 395-398 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[72] Hu H, Wang D, Zhou Y, et al. Vapour-based processing of hole-conductor-free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite/C60 fullerene planar solar cells. RSC Adv, 2014, 4: 28964-28967 CrossRef Google Scholar

[73] Kim J, Kim G, Kim TK, et al. Efficient planar-heterojunction perovskite solar cells achieved via interfacial modification of a sol–gel ZnO electron collection layer. J Mater Chem A, 2014, 2: 17291-17296 CrossRef Google Scholar

[74] Wang KC, Shen PS, Li MH, et al. Low-temperature sputtered nickel oxide compact thin film as effective electron blocking layer for mesoscopic NiO/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite heterojunction solar cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2014, 6: 11851-11858 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[75] Ding X, Ren Y, Wu Y, et al. Sequential deposition method fabricating carbonbased fully-inorganic perovskite solar cells. Sci China Mater, 2018, 61: 73-79 CrossRef Google Scholar

[76] Chiang CH, Tseng ZL, Wu CG. Planar heterojunction perovskite/PC71BM solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage via a (2/1)-step spin-coating process. J Mater Chem A, 2014, 2: 15897-15903 CrossRef Google Scholar

[77] Xiao Z, Bi C, Shao Y, et al. Efficient, high yield perovskite photovoltaic devices grown by interdiffusion of solution-processed precursor stacking layers. Energy Environ Sci, 2014, 7: 2619-2623 CrossRef Google Scholar

[78] Guo Q, Li C, Qiao W, et al. The growth of a CH3NH3PbI3 thin film using simplified close space sublimation for efficient and large dimensional perovskite solar cells. Energy Environ Sci, 2016, 9: 1486-1494 CrossRef Google Scholar

[79] Smith IC, Hoke ET, Solis-Ibarra D, et al. A layered hybrid perovskite solar-cell absorber with enhanced moisture stability. Angew Chem, 2014, 126: 11414-11417 CrossRef Google Scholar

[80] Cortecchia D, Dewi HA, Yin J, et al. Lead-free MA2CuClxBr4–x hybrid perovskites. Inorg Chem, 2016, 55: 1044-1052 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[81] Liang D, Peng Y, Fu Y, et al. Color-pure violet-light-emitting diodes based on layered lead halide perovskite nanoplates. ACS Nano, 2016, 10: 6897-6904 CrossRef Google Scholar

[82] Li Y, Cooper JK, Liu W, et al. Defective TiO2 with high photoconductive gain for efficient and stable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Nat Commun, 2016, 7: 12446 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[83] Wang YK, Yuan ZC, Shi GZ, et al. Dopant-free spiro-triphenylamine/fluorene as hole-transporting material for perovskite solar cells with enhanced efficiency and stability. Adv Funct Mater, 2016, 26: 1375-1381 CrossRef Google Scholar

[84] Zhang F, Yi C, Wei P, et al. A novel dopant-free triphenylamine based molecular “butterfly” hole-transport material for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2016, 6: 1600401 CrossRef Google Scholar

[85] You J, Meng L, Song TB, et al. Improved air stability of perovskite solar cells via solution-processed metal oxide transport layers. Nat Nanotechnol, 2015, 11: 75-81 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[86] Ma S, Qiao W, Cheng T, et al. Optical–electrical–chemical engineering of PEDOT:PSS by incorporation of hydrophobic nafion for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10: 3902-3911 CrossRef Google Scholar

[87] Li W, Zhang W, Van Reenen S, et al. Enhanced UV-light stability of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with caesium bromide interface modification. Energy Environ Sci, 2016, 9: 490-498 CrossRef Google Scholar

[88] Ma Y, Deng K, Gu B, et al. Boosting efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells with CdS inserted at TiO2/perovskite Interface. Adv Mater Interfaces, 2016, 3: 1600729 CrossRef Google Scholar

[89] Ye QQ, Wang ZK, Li M, et al. N-type doping of fullerenes for planar perovskite solar cells. ACS Energy Lett, 2018, 3: 875-882 CrossRef Google Scholar

[90] Saliba M, Matsui T, Domanski K, et al. Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance. Science, 2016, 354: 206-209 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[91] Liao JF, Rao HS, Chen BX, et al. Dimension engineering on cesium lead iodide for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2017, 5: 2066-2072 CrossRef Google Scholar

[92] Cao DH, Stoumpos CC, Yokoyama T, et al. Thin films and solar cells based on semiconducting two-dimensional ruddlesden–popper (CH3(CH2)3NH3)2(CH3NH3)n−1SnnI3n+1 Perovskites. ACS Energy Lett, 2017, 2: 982-990 CrossRef Google Scholar

[93] Cohen BE, Wierzbowska M, Etgar L. High efficiency and high open circuit voltage in quasi 2D perovskite based solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2017, 27: 1604733 CrossRef Google Scholar

[94] Hamaguchi R, Yoshizawa-Fujita M, Miyasaka T, et al. Formamidine and cesium-based quasi-two-dimensional perovskites as photovoltaic absorbers. Chem Commun, 2017, 53: 4366-4369 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[95] Yao K, Wang X, Xu Y, et al. A general fabrication procedure for efficient and stable planar perovskite solar cells: Morphological and interfacial control by in-situ-generated layered perovskite. Nano Energy, 2015, 18: 165-175 CrossRef Google Scholar

[96] Wang F, Geng W, Zhou Y, et al. Phenylalkylamine passivation of organolead halide perovskites enabling high-efficiency and air-stable photovoltaic cells. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 9986-9992 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[97] Cho KT, Grancini G, Lee Y, et al. Selective growth of layered perovskites for stable and efficient photovoltaics. Energy Environ Sci, 2018, 11: 952-959 CrossRef Google Scholar

[98] Cho H, Jeong SH, Park MH, et al. Overcoming the electroluminescence efficiency limitations of perovskite light-emitting diodes. Science, 2015, 350: 1222-1225 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[99] Tan ZK, Moghaddam RS, Lai ML, et al. Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite. Nat Nanotechnol, 2014, 9: 687-692 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[100] Li G, Tan ZK, Di D, et al. Efficient light-emitting diodes based on nanocrystalline perovskite in a dielectric polymer matrix. Nano Lett, 2015, 15: 2640-2644 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[101] Sadhanala A, Ahmad S, Zhao B, et al. Blue-green color tunable solution processable organolead chloride–bromide mixed halide perovskites for optoelectronic applications. Nano Lett, 2015, 15: 6095-6101 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[102] Gong X, Yang Z, Walters G, et al. Highly efficient quantum dot near-infrared light-emitting diodes. Nat Photon, 2016, 10: 253-257 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[103] Wang J, Wang N, Jin Y, et al. Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes. Adv Mater, 2015, 27: 2311-2316 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[104] Ling Y, Yuan Z, Tian Y, et al. Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 305-311 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[105] Xing J, Yan F, Zhao Y, et al. High-efficiency light-emitting diodes of organometal halide perovskite amorphous nanoparticles. ACS Nano, 2016, 10: 6623-6630 CrossRef Google Scholar

[106] Yang X, Zhang X, Deng J, et al. Efficient green light-emitting diodes based on quasi-two-dimensional composition and phase engineered perovskite with surface passivation. Nat Commun, 2018, 9: 570 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[107] Mitzi DB, Chondroudis K, Kagan CR. Organic-inorganic electronics. IBM J Res Dev, 2001, 45: 29-45 CrossRef Google Scholar

[108] Gauthron K, Lauret JS, Doyennette L, et al. Optical spectroscopy of two-dimensional layered (C6H5C2H4NH3)2-PbI4 perovskite. Opt Express, 2010, 18: 5912-5919 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[109] Era M, Morimoto S, Tsutsui T, et al. Organic-inorganic heterostructure electroluminescent device using a layered perovskite semiconductor (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4. Appl Phys Lett, 1994, 65: 676-678 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    Structure diagrams of 3D perovskite lattices [7]: (a) MX6 regular octahedral structure; (b) AX12 cubic octahedral structure. (c) The structure diagram of 2D perovskite crystals [8]; (d) perovskite lattices with different dimensions (n=∞, 3D structure; n=1, pure 2D structure; and n=defined integer, quasi-2D structure). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [7], Copyright 2014, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmBH&, and Ref. [8], Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 2

    (a) Device structure of perovskite optoelectronic devices; (b) energy level diagram of PeSC; (c) energy level diagram of PeLED.

  • Figure 3

    (a) Typical large-group ammoniums and structure of corresponding 2D perovskite crystal [40,41]; structure diagrams of 2D perovskite with (b) monoammonium cations and (c) diammonium cations. (d) Bimolecular combination fixed by interactions between fluoroaryls or aryls in 2D perovskite. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [40], Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society, and Ref. [41], Copyright 2014, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 4

    (a) The absorption [49] and (b) PL [55] spectra of (PEA)2MAn−1PbnI3n+1. The carrier transfer process in (c) n=3 and (d) n=5 multiple-phase (PEA)2MAn−1PbnI3n+1 and (e) the energy transfer across an inhomogeneous energy landscape [12]. (f) Schematic of cascade energy transfer in NFPI7 MQWs and (g) the energy level diagram of the MQWs solar-cell device [11]. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [49], Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society; Ref. [55], Copyright 2015, Wiley-VCH GmBH&Co.; Ref. [12], Copyright 2016, Nature Publishing Group; Ref. [11], Copyright 2016, Nature Publishing Group.

  • Figure 5

    Structure diagrams of 2D perovskite with several orientations.

  • Figure 6

    The XRD spectra of 2D perovskite (BA)2(MA)n−1PbnI3n+1 (n=1, 2, 3, 4) and 3D perovskite MAPbI3 (n=∞) powders or films [14]. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [14], Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 7

    SEM images of (a) MAPbI3 film and (b) (BA)2(MA)2Pb3I10 film [14]. GIWAXS patterns of (BA)2(MA)3Pb4I13 films prepared by (c) traditional room-temperature-cast method; (d) hot-cast method. (e) Structure diagram of the 2D perovskite crystal obtained from GIWAXS test [6]. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [14], Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society and Ref. [6], Copyright 2016, Nature Publishing Group.

  • Figure 8

    (a) Fast deposition-crystallisation procedure [64], and (b) sequential dipping method [65] of 3D perovskite films fabrication. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [64], Copyright 2013, Nature Publishing Group and Ref. [65], Copyright 2014, Nature Publishing Group.

  • Figure 9

    (a) The (BA)2(MA)3Pb4I13 films cast from room temperature (RT) to 150°C, (b) GIXRD spectra, (c, d) AFM images, and (e, f) SEM images of films prepared by traditional room-temperature-cast method (c, e) and hot-cast method (d, f) [6]. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [6], Copyright 2016, Nature Publishing Group.

  • Figure 10

    (a) The procedures of solution vapour annealing method. (b, d) SEM images, (c, e) AFM images, (f) XRD spectra, (g) absorption and PL spectra, (h) TRPL spectra of the nanosheets and polycrystalline films with or without the solution vapour annealing method [81]. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [81], Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 11

    (a) The procedures of (IC2H4NH3)2(CH3NH3)n−1PbnI3n+1 films prepared by dipping method. (b, c) The FESEM and (d) XRD spectra of (IC2H4NH3)2(CH3NH3)n−1PbnI3n+1 films with different dipping time [13]. (e) The procedures of FAxPEA1−xPbI3 films prepared by the sequential deposition method and the structure diagram of FAxPEA1−xPbI3 quasi-3D perovskite crystal. (f) The photographs of n=∞ and n=40 (n=FA/PEA) films during the 30 days storage in ambient condition with a relative humidity of 40 ± 5% [9]. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [13], Copyright 2016, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmBH&Co. and Ref. [9], Copyright 2016, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmBH&Co..

  • Figure 12

    (a) The JV curves and PCE of PEA2(MA)n−1PbnI3n+1 with n changing from 0 to ∞. (b) The trade-off between PCE and stability of PEA2MAn−1PbnI3n+1 solar cells (n=6, 10, 40, 60, and ∞) [49]. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [49], Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society.

  • Table 1   The band gap of typical 2D perovskite materials (eV)

    2D-perovskite materials

    n=1

    n=2

    n=3

    n=∞

    Ref.

    (BA)2(MA)n−1PbnI3n+1a

    2.24

    1.99

    1.85

    1.52

    [14]

    (PEA)2(MA)n−1PbnI3n+1b

    2.57

    2.32

    /

    1.61

    [53]

    (PEI)2(MA)n−1PbnI3n+1c

    /

    /

    1.79

    1.58

    [40]

    (AVAI/PbI2)/(MAI/PbI2)d

    /

    /

    1.69(3%)

    1.63

    [54]

  • Table 2   Device structures and performance parameters of 2D PeSCs

    2D-perovskite materials

    Cell configuration

    FTO/../Au (ITO/../Ag)

    JSC

    [mA cm−2]

    VOC

    [V]

    FF

    [%]

    PCE

    [%]

    Methods

    Ref.

    (BA)2(MA)2Pb3I10

    TiO2/2D-PVK/spiro-OMeTAD

    9.42

    0.93

    0.46

    4.02

    One-step

    [14]

    (BA)2(MA)3Pb4I13

    PEDOT:PSS/2D-PVK/PCBM

    16.76

    1.01

    0.74

    12.52

    Hot-cast

    [6]

    BA2CsPb2I7

    TiO2/2D-PVK/spiro-OMeTAD

    8.88

    0.96

    57.0

    4.84

    One-step

    [91]

    BA2MA3Sn4I13

    TiO2/2D-PVK/PTAA

    24.1

    0.23

    45.7

    2.53

    One-step

    [92]

    (PEA)2(MA)2[Pb3I10]

    TiO2/2D-PVK/spiro-OMeTAD

    6.72

    1.18

    0.60

    4.73

    One-step

    [79]

    (PEA)2(MA)n−1PbnI3n+1a

    TiO2/2D-PVK/spiro-OMeTAD

    19.12

    1.09

    0.74

    15.36

    One-step

    [49]

    FAxPEA1−xPbI3

    NiOx/2D-PVK/PCBM/BCP

    22.08

    1.04

    77.1

    17.7

    Two-step

    [9]

    (PEA)2(MA)n−1PbnBr3n+1

    TiO2/2D-PVK/spiro-OMeTAD

    9.0

    1.46

    65

    8.5

    One-step

    [93]

    TiO2/2D-PVK

    8.2

    1.25

    62

    6.3

    (CA)2(MA)n−1PbnI3n+1b

    TiO2/2D-PVK/spiro-OMeTAD

    14.88

    0.88

    0.69

    9.03

    Dipping

    [13]

    (PEI)2(MA)6Pb7I22

    PEDOT:PSS/2D-PVK/PCBM

    13.12

    1.10

    0.65

    10.08

    One-step

    [40]

    (AVAI/PbI2)/(MAI/PbI2)c

    TiO2/2D-PVK/spiro-OMeTAD

    18.84

    1.025

    75.5

    14.6

    One-step

    [54]

    TiO2/2D-PVK

    23.60

    0.857

    58.7

    11.9

    HA2MAPb2I7d

    TiO2/2D-PVK/spiro-OMeTAD

    1.33

    0.71

    35.5

    0.34

    One-step

    [94]

    HA2FAPb2I7

    2.86

    0.64

    54.6

    1.03

    HA2CsPb2I7

    0.68

    0.33

    46.2

    0.10

    MA2CuCl2Br2

    TiO2/2D-PVK/spiro-OMeTAD

    0.216

    0.256

    0.32

    0.017

    One-step

    [80]

  • Table 3   Device structures and performance parameters of several 2D PeLEDs

    2D-perovskite materials

    Cell configuration

    ITO/

    CE

    [cd A−1]

    Lmax

    [cd m−2]

    Vt

    [V]

    EQE

    [%]

    PLQE

    [%]

    EL

    (nm)

    Ref.

    (PEAa)2[PbI4]

    2D perovskite/OXD7b/MgAg

    /

    10000

    24

    /

    /

    520

    [109]

    (PEA)2PbBr4

    PEDOT:PSS/2D perovskite/TPBi/Ca/Al

    /

    /

    2.5

    0.04

    26

    410

    [81]

    (PEA)2(MA)n−1PbnBr3n+1c

    Buf-HILd/2D perovskite/TPBi/Al

    4.9

    2935

    /

    /

    34

    520

    [55]

    (PEA)2(MA)n−1PbnBr3n+1e

    TiO2/2D perovskite/F8/MoO3/Au

    /

    (80)f

    7.4

    8.8

    10.6

    760

    [12]

    PEA2(FAPbBr3)n−1PbBr4g

    m-PEDOT:PSS/2D-perovskite/TOPO/TPBi/LiF/Al

    62.43

    9120

    2.8

    14.36

    73.8

    532

    [106]

    (NMAh)2(FA)Pb2I7

    ZnO(PEIE)/2D perovskite/TFB/MoOx/Au

    /

    (55)6

    1.5

    9.6

    60

    786

    [11]

    (NMA)2(FA)Pb2I6Br

    /

    (82)6

    1.3

    11.7

    67

    763