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Biomass-derived carbon materials with structural diversities and their applications in energy storage

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  • ReceivedOct 11, 2017
  • AcceptedNov 27, 2017
  • PublishedDec 27, 2017

Abstract


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51702117,51672055)

Major Research Projects Fund of Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology(2016006)

Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province(E201416)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51702117, 51672055), Major Research Projects Fund of Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology (2016006), Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province of China (E201416).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Jiang L and Sheng L searched the reference and wrote the paper. Fan Z designed the outlines and modified the manuscript. All authors contributed to the general discussion.


Author information

Lili Jiang received her PhD degree in 2016 at the College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering at Harbin Engineering University. She is now an associate professor at Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology. Her current research is focused on the design and synthesis of functional carbonaceous nanomaterials as well as their applications for energy conversion and storage devices.


Lizhi Sheng currently is pursuing PhD degree in the College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering at Harbin Engineering University. His research interests mainly focus on the design and synthesis of functional carbonaceous nanomaterials and their applications for energy storage.


Zhuangjun Fan received his PhD in 2003 at the Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. He became full professor at the College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering in 2006, and now he is the director of the Institue of Advanced Carbon Based Materials at Harbin Engineering University. His research interests focus on the design and controlled synthesis of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, and their applications in energy-related areas such as supercapacitors, Li ion batteries and full cells.


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  • Figure 1

    An overview of structural diversities of biomass-derived carbon materials and the applications in supercapacitors, lithium- and sodium-ion batteries.

  • Figure 2

    (a) SEM image of glucose-based CMs. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [39] Copyright 2016, Elsevier. (b) SEM image of glucose-based carbon nanospheres. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [40] Copyright 2014, Elsevier. (c) SEM image of oatmeal-based N-doped CMs (NCSs-500). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [22] Copyright 2016, Elsevier. (d) SEM image of coconut oil-based carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [21], Copyright 2016, Elsevier.

  • Figure 3

    Structure characterization of the N-doped nanofibrous CMs (NCM900): SEM images (a, b) of the CMs; TEM image (c) of the CMs (insert: the selected area diffraction pattern); SEM images (d) of the CMs before and after 5 cyclic 75% strain compression tests, respectively. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [49], Copyright 2016, Elsevier.

  • Figure 4

    TEM micrographs of hydrothermal carbonization carbons derived from hydrolysis products after using silica nanoparticles as templates: (a) spruce, (b) corncobs. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [50] Copyright 2013, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (c) TEM image and (d) HR-TEM image of hollow carbon nanospheres. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [51], Copyright 2012, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  • Figure 5

    (a) Schematic illustration of the process to prepare hierarchically porous structured hollow microspheres of activated carbon from various spores (lycopodium clavatum, ganodorm alucidum and lycopodium annotinum). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [53] Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry. (b and c) TEM images of three dimensionally interconnected carbon nanorings. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [54], Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 6

    SEM images, covering different areas, of loose (a, b), interconnected (c, d) and interconnected + partially gasified (e, f) lignin-based carbon fibers (CFs). (g) Histogram of fiber diameters from SEM images. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [67], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 7

    (a) Schematic illustration on the synthesis process of N-doped porous graphitic carbon nanofibers (N-PCNFs). (b) SEM image of N-PCNFs-600. (c) Low-magnification TEM image and TEM-EDS mapping of N-PCNFs-600. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [68], Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 8

    (a) Photograph of ramie fibers. (b) Photographs of the ramie-derived carbon fibers (RCFs). (c) Low-resolution SEM image of the RCFs. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [56] Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. (d) Photographs of the pristine bacterial cellulose pellicle and freezing dried bacterial cellulose membrane (inset) with size of 30 × 40 cm2 and 4 × 5 cm2, respectively. (e) FESEM image and photograph (inset) of CBC membrane. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [24], Copyright 2016, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  • Figure 9

    SEM images of (a) broussonetia papyrifera (BP) fiber and (b) BPC-700. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [58] Copyright 2015, Elsevier. (c) SEM and (d) TEM images of bacterial cellulose-based 3D honeycomb-like hierarchical structured carbon (HSC-0.5). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [61], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 10

    (a) SEM image of cotton-derived activated carbon fiber (aCF-6). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [74] Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society. (b) SEM images of poplar catkins-derived carbon microtubes. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [77] Copyright 2014, The Chemical Society of Japan. (c) The SEM images of willow catkin. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [81] Copyright 2016, Elsevier. (d, e) Typical cross-sectional view SEM images of pomelo-peel-derived carbon tubes. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [83] Copyright 2016, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (f) SEM images of higher magnification and the wall of the eggplant-derived macroporous carbon tubes. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [84], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 11

    (a) Schematic diagram displaying the overall evolution of wheat straw into few-layer graphene. (b) SEM and (c and d) TEM images of few-layer graphene. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [86], Copyright 2016, Elsevier.

  • Figure 12

    (a) Schematic of the synthesis process for the hemp-derived carbon nanosheets, with the three different structural layers S1–S3. (b) SEM micrograph highlighting the interconnected 2D structure of sample CNS-800. (c) High resolution TEM micrograph highlighting the porous and partially ordered structure of CNS-800. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [87], Copyright 2013, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 13

    (a) SEM and (b) TEM images of carbon cryogel (G-CS-8). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [100]. Copyright 2015, IOP Publishing. (c) Cross-section SEM view of gelatin coated boric acid nanoplates. (d) cross-section TEM image of B/N-CSs. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [35], Copyright 2016, WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  • Figure 14

    (a, b) TEM images of N-doped mesoporous carbon building (N-MCB). Reprinted with permission from Ref. [109], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 15

    (a) SEM and (b) TEM images of hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanosheets (HPNC-NS). (c) Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm (inset: cumulative pore volume) and (d) pore size distribution of an HPNC-NS. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [98], Copyright 2015, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 16

    (a) Digital photograph of moringa oleifera trees. Inset in (a) shows a photograph of moringa oleifera branches (MOBs). Optical photographs of MOBs in cross section (b) and longitudinal section (c). FESEM images of MOBs in cross section (d) and longitudinal section (e). (f) Magnified FESEM image of the red square in (e). (g) SEM and (h) TEM images of the hierarchical egg-box-like carbons (HEBLCs). (i) The pore size distribution curves of HEBLCs. The inset in (i) shows the pore size distribution curves from 20 to 80 nm. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [127], Copyright 2016, American Chemical Society.

  • Figure 17

    (a) Graphical illustration of the design concept and construction process of the all-wood-structured supercapacitor. (b, c) SEM images for the activated wood carbon (AWC). (d, e) SEM images for the wood carbon/MnO2 (MnO2@WC) composite. (f) Pictures of the AWC anode, wood separator and MnO2@WC cathode. (g) Picture of the all-wood structured all-solid state asymmetric supercapacitor. Electrochemical performance of the AWCǁwood separatorǁMnO2@WC ASC: (h) Typical CV curves of the AWC anode and MnO2@WC cathode between the potential range of −1 to 0.8 V, (i) CV curves at various scan rates, (j) rate performances, (k) cycling performance. The specific capacitances are calculated based on the total mass of both electrodes. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [192] Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 18

    (a) SEM image of the obtained densely porous layer-stacking carbon (PGC) material derived from fungus. (b, c) Corresponding elemental mapping images of C atom and O atom in (a). (d) HRTEM image of PGC, showing interconnected porous system. (e) N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm of HTC and PGC. (f) The gravimetric capacitance of HTC, PGC and A-HTC electrodes at the current densities from 0.5 to 20 A g−1. (g) Comparison of the volumetric and gravimetric capacitances of PGC electrode with other carbon electrodes in aqueous electrolytes. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [117], Copyright 2016, Elsevier. (h) SEM and TEM (i) images of SBC-600. (j) Gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of SBC-600 as a function of current density. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [130], Copyright 2016, Elsevier.

  • Figure 19

    (a) SEM and (b and c) TEM images of the hierarchically porous nitrogen-rich carbon (HPNC). (d) Cyclic voltammograms of the HPNC at a scan rate of 0.1 mV s−1. (e) Charge and discharge curves of the HPNC at 0.037 A g−1. (f) The capacity of the HPNC over cycling at different rates. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [206], Copyright 2014, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 20

    (a) TEM and (b, c) high-resolution TEM images for sample Mg15. (d) CV curves of samples Mg15. (e) Rate capabilities and cycle performance of sample Mg15 cycled at different current rates. (f) Galvanostatic charge-discharge of Mg15. (g) Cycling performance of the synthesized carbon samples. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [195], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry.

  • Figure 21

    (a) Digital photograph of switchgrass derived carbon under Joule heating. (b) SEM image of cross section from GC-2050, highlighting the hollow structure formed by extremely thin cell wall. (c) SEM image of longitudinal section from GC-2050, highlighting the parallel array structure of channel. (d) the pore size distribution curve of GC-1000 and GC-2050 (inset is the enlarged view of GC-2050). (e) The rate performances and (f) long-term cycling stability (current rate: 50 mA g−1) of switchgrass derived carbon anode GC-1000 and GC-2050. Reprinted with permission from Ref. [218], Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society.