SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 9 : 192301(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-021-3264-9

Anisotropic and nonlinear metasurface for multiple functions

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  • ReceivedMar 16, 2021
  • AcceptedMay 17, 2021
  • PublishedAug 18, 2021



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61801117), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2242021R10109), National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2017YFA0700201, 2017YFA0700202, 2017YFA0700203), International Cooperation and Exchange of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61761136007), the 111 Project (Grant No. 111-2-05), and Zhishan Young Scholar Program and Zijin Scholar Program of Southeast University.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) (a) 3D view of the particle together with the detecting circuit integrated on the bottom layer; (b) top views of Particles A and B, showing the different sizes of the patches and different positions of Via 1.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) (a) Simulated reflection magnitudes and phases of Particles A and B when they are illuminated by $y$-polarized plane waves. The varactor capacitance is 0.7 pF. Results with 0.9 and 1.1 pF are omitted because they would overlap if placed together. (b) When illuminated by $x$-polarized plane waves, the reflection magnitudes and phases of the two particles as functions of the capacitance of the varactor $C_t$.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Simulated radiation performances of a single Particle A and a single Particle B at 5.2 GHz. (a) Far-field co-polarized patterns; (b) far-field cross-polarized patterns; (c) the impact of the capacitance of the varactor on the directivities of the particles. A 3D pattern is given in the inset.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Simulations on the input impedance of Particles A and B as radiators on the interfaces between Via 1 and the bottom circuits, referring to the input impedance of the circuit, as functions of the varactor capacitance. (a) Input impedance of Particle A. (b) Input impedance of Particle B. (c) Reflection magnitudes of the two particles.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Measured DC output voltages of the detecting circuits of Particles A and B when they are illuminated by the $x$-polarized microwaves with varying power levels. The measurement setup is plotted in the inset, not to scale.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) (a) Spatial arrangement of the particles on metasurface. (b) Under $y$-polarization, the reflection phases of Particles A and B are opposite. The figure shows the distribution of the opposite-phase super particles. (c) Simulated scattering far-field 3D pattern of the metasurface under $y$-polarization at 5.2 GHz. The “sw" in the color bar stands for “square wavelength". (d) Simulated scattering far-field 3D pattern of the same-sized metallic plate at 5.2 GHz. (e) Comparison of the scattering at 5.2 GHz between the metasurface and the metallic plate, obtained from simulations. (f) Under $x$-polarization, Particles A and B are considered as the same particle. 8 columns of the super particles are alternatively applied with high and low enabling voltage levels, making the columns exhibiting nonlinear or linear reflection phase responses, respectively. (g) Simulated 3D far-field pattern at 5.2 GHz with high-power $x$-polarized excitation. (h) Simulated 3D pattern at 5.2 GHz with low-power $x$-polarized excitation. (i) Simulated 2D scattering patterns at 5.2 GHz of the metallic plate and the metasurface in the high-power and low-power cases.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) (a) Photographs of the metasurface prototype; (b) photograph of the measurement setup, without the receiving antenna and the spectral analyzer; (c) schematic of the measurement system, not to scale.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) (a) Measured scattering comparison between the metasurface and the same-sized metallic plate at 5.2 GHz, under $y$-polarization. (b) Measured backscattering reduction of the metasurface over the frequency region of our interest, under $y$-polarization. (c) Measured normalized 2D scattering patterns when the metasurface is excited by $x$-polarized microwaves, showing the beam splitting effect with 36-dBm power and specular reflection phenomenon with 11-dBm power.

  • Table 1  

    Table 1Reflection phase responses of the particles

    Incident polarization $V_{\rm~ENA}$ Particle A or B
    $y$-polarization NA Reflection phases of A and B are opposite$^{\rm~a)}$
    $x$-polarization High Both particles show synchronously power-dependent reflection phase (nonlinear mode)
    $x$-polarization Low Both particles show the same constantreflection phase, not affected by incident power (linear mode)



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