logo

SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 9 : 192301(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-021-3264-9

Anisotropic and nonlinear metasurface for multiple functions

More info
  • ReceivedMar 16, 2021
  • AcceptedMay 17, 2021
  • PublishedAug 18, 2021

Abstract


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61801117), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2242021R10109), National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2017YFA0700201, 2017YFA0700202, 2017YFA0700203), International Cooperation and Exchange of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61761136007), the 111 Project (Grant No. 111-2-05), and Zhishan Young Scholar Program and Zijin Scholar Program of Southeast University.


References

[1] Chen S, Liu W, Li Z. Metasurface?Empowered Optical Multiplexing and Multifunction. Adv Mater, 2020, 32: 1805912 CrossRef Google Scholar

[2] Zhang F, Xie X, Pu M. Multistate Switching of Photonic Angular Momentum Coupling in Phase?Change Metadevices. Adv Mater, 2020, 32: 1908194 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Zhang Y, Liu H, Cheng H. Multidimensional manipulation of wave fields based on artificial microstructures. Opto-Electron Adv, 2020, 3: 200002 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Sievenpiper D, Schaffner J, Loo R. A tunable impedance surface performing as a reconfigurable beam steering reflector. IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat, 2002, 50: 384-390 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[5] Shadrivov I V, Kapitanova P V, Maslovski S I. Metamaterials Controlled with Light. Phys Rev Lett, 2012, 109: 083902 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[6] Cui T J, Qi M Q, Wan X. Coding metamaterials, digital metamaterials and programmable metamaterials. Light Sci Appl, 2014, 3: e218-e218 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[7] Luo Z, Chen M Z, Wang Z X. Digital Nonlinear Metasurface with Customizable Nonreciprocity. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29: 1906635 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Zhang L, Zhang H, Tang M. Integrated multi-scheme digital modulations of spoof surface plasmon polaritons. Sci China Inf Sci, 2020, 63: 202302 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Wang Q, Jiang W X , Shen H Y. Design of low-profile array antenna working at 110 GHz based on digital coding characterization. Sci China Inf Sci, in press doi: 10.1007/s11432-020-3165-8. Google Scholar

[10] Zhang Y, Wu P, Zhou Z. Study on Temperature Adjustable Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber Based on Vanadium Dioxide. IEEE Access, 2020, 8: 85154-85161 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Ma Q, Bai G D, Jing H B. Smart metasurface with self-adaptively reprogrammable functions. Light Sci Appl, 2019, 8: 98 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[12] Wu H T, Wang D, Fu X. Space-Frequency-Domain Gradient Metamaterials. Adv Opt Mater, 2018, 6: 1801086 CrossRef Google Scholar

[13] Zhou L, Shen Z. Hybrid Frequency-Selective Rasorber With Low-Frequency Diffusion and High-Frequency Absorption. IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat, 2021, 69: 1469-1476 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[14] Luo Z, Chen X, Long J. Nonlinear Power-Dependent Impedance Surface. IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat, 2015, 63: 1736-1745 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[15] Li A, Singh S, Sievenpiper D. Metasurfaces and their applications. Nanophotonics, 2018, 7: 989-1011 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[16] Chen K, Ding G, Hu G. Directional Janus Metasurface. Adv Mater, 2020, 32: 1906352 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Li G, Sartorello G, Chen S. Spin and Geometric Phase Control Four-Wave Mixing from Metasurfaces. Laser Photonics Rev, 2018, 12: 1800034 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[18] Ma H F, Wang G Z, Jiang W X. Independent control of differently-polarized waves using anisotropic gradient-index metamaterials. Sci Rep, 2015, 4: 6337 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[19] Lee W S L, Nirantar S, Headland D. Broadband Terahertz Circular-Polarization Beam Splitter. Adv Opt Mater, 2018, 6: 1700852 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Chen M L N, Jiang L J, Sha W E I. Polarization Control by Using Anisotropic 3-D Chiral Structures. IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat, 2016, 64: 4687-4694 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[21] Shadrivov I V, Fedotov V A, Powell D A. Electromagnetic wave analogue of an electronic diode. New J Phys, 2011, 13: 033025 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[22] Chen Q, Li J Y, Yang G. A Polarization-Reconfigurable High-Gain Microstrip Antenna. IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat, 2019, 67: 3461-3466 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[23] Li M, Tang M, Xiao S. Design of a LP, RHCP and LHCP Polarization-Reconfigurable Holographic Antenna. IEEE Access, 2019, 7: 82776-82784 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Zhang C, Deng L, Zhu J. A right-handed circularly polarized wave generated by a waveguide-fed holographic metasurface. J Phys D-Appl Phys, 2020, 53: 26LT01 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[25] Pendry J B, Holden A J, Robbins D J. Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena. IEEE Trans Microwave Theor Techn, 1999, 47: 2075-2084 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[26] Wang B, Zhou J, Koschny T. Nonlinear properties of split-ring resonators. Opt Express, 2008, 16: 16058-16063 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[27] Slobozhanyuk A P, Lapine M, Powell D A. Flexible Helices for Nonlinear Metamaterials. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 3409-3412 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Sievenpiper D F. Nonlinear Grounded Metasurfaces for Suppression of High-Power Pulsed RF Currents. Antennas Wirel Propag Lett, 2011, 10: 1516-1519 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[29] Luo Z, Long J, Chen X. Electrically tunable metasurface absorber based on dissipating behavior of embedded varactors. Appl Phys Lett, 2016, 109: 071107 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[30] Li A, Luo Z, Wakatsuchi H. Nonlinear, Active, and Tunable Metasurfaces for Advanced Electromagnetics Applications. IEEE Access, 2017, 5: 27439-27452 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Caloz C, Alù A, Tretyakov S. Electromagnetic Nonreciprocity. Phys Rev Appl, 2018, 10: 047001 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[32] Fernandes D E, Silveirinha M G. Asymmetric Transmission and Isolation in Nonlinear Devices: Why They Are Different. Antennas Wirel Propag Lett, 2018, 17: 1953-1957 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[33] Sounas D L, Alù A. Fundamental bounds on the operation of Fano nonlinear isolators. Phys Rev B, 2018, 97: 115431 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[34] Shi Y, Yu Z, Fan S. Limitations of nonlinear optical isolators due to dynamic reciprocity. Nat Photon, 2015, 9: 388-392 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[35] Yu N, Genevet P, Kats M A. Light Propagation with Phase Discontinuities: Generalized Laws of Reflection and Refraction. Science, 2011, 334: 333-337 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[36] Stutzman W L, Thiele G A. Antenna Theory and Design. 3rd ed. Wiley: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012. 468--474. Google Scholar

[37] Sun S, He Q, Xiao S. Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves. Nat Mater, 2012, 11: 426-431 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) (a) 3D view of the particle together with the detecting circuit integrated on the bottom layer; (b) top views of Particles A and B, showing the different sizes of the patches and different positions of Via 1.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) (a) Simulated reflection magnitudes and phases of Particles A and B when they are illuminated by $y$-polarized plane waves. The varactor capacitance is 0.7 pF. Results with 0.9 and 1.1 pF are omitted because they would overlap if placed together. (b) When illuminated by $x$-polarized plane waves, the reflection magnitudes and phases of the two particles as functions of the capacitance of the varactor $C_t$.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Simulated radiation performances of a single Particle A and a single Particle B at 5.2 GHz. (a) Far-field co-polarized patterns; (b) far-field cross-polarized patterns; (c) the impact of the capacitance of the varactor on the directivities of the particles. A 3D pattern is given in the inset.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Simulations on the input impedance of Particles A and B as radiators on the interfaces between Via 1 and the bottom circuits, referring to the input impedance of the circuit, as functions of the varactor capacitance. (a) Input impedance of Particle A. (b) Input impedance of Particle B. (c) Reflection magnitudes of the two particles.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Measured DC output voltages of the detecting circuits of Particles A and B when they are illuminated by the $x$-polarized microwaves with varying power levels. The measurement setup is plotted in the inset, not to scale.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) (a) Spatial arrangement of the particles on metasurface. (b) Under $y$-polarization, the reflection phases of Particles A and B are opposite. The figure shows the distribution of the opposite-phase super particles. (c) Simulated scattering far-field 3D pattern of the metasurface under $y$-polarization at 5.2 GHz. The “sw" in the color bar stands for “square wavelength". (d) Simulated scattering far-field 3D pattern of the same-sized metallic plate at 5.2 GHz. (e) Comparison of the scattering at 5.2 GHz between the metasurface and the metallic plate, obtained from simulations. (f) Under $x$-polarization, Particles A and B are considered as the same particle. 8 columns of the super particles are alternatively applied with high and low enabling voltage levels, making the columns exhibiting nonlinear or linear reflection phase responses, respectively. (g) Simulated 3D far-field pattern at 5.2 GHz with high-power $x$-polarized excitation. (h) Simulated 3D pattern at 5.2 GHz with low-power $x$-polarized excitation. (i) Simulated 2D scattering patterns at 5.2 GHz of the metallic plate and the metasurface in the high-power and low-power cases.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) (a) Photographs of the metasurface prototype; (b) photograph of the measurement setup, without the receiving antenna and the spectral analyzer; (c) schematic of the measurement system, not to scale.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) (a) Measured scattering comparison between the metasurface and the same-sized metallic plate at 5.2 GHz, under $y$-polarization. (b) Measured backscattering reduction of the metasurface over the frequency region of our interest, under $y$-polarization. (c) Measured normalized 2D scattering patterns when the metasurface is excited by $x$-polarized microwaves, showing the beam splitting effect with 36-dBm power and specular reflection phenomenon with 11-dBm power.

  • Table 1  

    Table 1Reflection phase responses of the particles

    Incident polarization $V_{\rm~ENA}$ Particle A or B
    $y$-polarization NA Reflection phases of A and B are opposite$^{\rm~a)}$
    $x$-polarization High Both particles show synchronously power-dependent reflection phase (nonlinear mode)
    $x$-polarization Low Both particles show the same constantreflection phase, not affected by incident power (linear mode)

    a

qqqq

Contact and support