SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 4 : 140402(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-020-3172-1

Properties and photodetector applications of two-dimensional black arsenic phosphorus and black phosphorus

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  • ReceivedDec 14, 2020
  • AcceptedJan 13, 2021
  • PublishedMar 8, 2021



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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Crystal structures of b-P and b-AsP. (a-i) Perspective view of b-P crystal structure. The spacing of interlayer is 0.53 nm. (a-ii) Top view of monolayer b-P, where $x$ and $y$ correspond to the directions of armchair and zigzag, respectively. (b-i) Perspective view of b-AsP crystal lattice. (b-ii) Crystal lattice of the monolayer b-AsP in top and side views. (b-ii) is reproduced with permission from [21].

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Band structures of b-P and b-AsP. (a-i) Band structures of one-layer, two-layers, three-layers and bulk phosphorene calculated using density functional theory. (a-ii) The relationship between bandgap and the layer number in theory and experiment. (b-i) b-AsP's orbital-resolved band structure obtained from first principles calculations coupled with the function formalism of non-equilibrium green. (b-ii) Component of arsenic dependent bandgaps of thick b-As$_{x}$P$_{1~-~x}$ flakes ($>30$ nm). (b-iii) Bandgaps of b-As$_{x}$P$_{1~-~x~}$ determined by the arsenic component and number of layers, calculated by HSE06 method. (a-i) is reproduced with permission from [30], (a-ii) from [8], (b-i) from [21], (b-ii) from [12], and (b-iii) from [31].

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Optical properties of b-P and b-AsP. (a-i) An atomic force microscopy image of a thin b-P flake, shows a thickness about 7.75 nm. Inset: optical image of this b-P flake. (a-ii) Raman spectrum of b-P using polarized laser excitation along different directions. (b-i) Raman spectra of b-AsP with different contents of arsenic. (b-ii) Polarized infrared extinction spectra of the b-As$_{0.83}$P$_{0.17}$. Inset: optical image of the characterized flake. (a-i) and (a-ii) are reproduced with permission from [35], (b-i) from [12], and (b-ii) from [29].

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Electronic properties of b-P and b-AsP. (a-i) Schematic of b-P device structure with eight electrodes along with different directions. (a-ii) The $I_{\rm~ds}$ and the transconductance as a function of angle. (b-i) Schematic of a b-AsP based field-effect transistor. (b-ii) Transfer curve of a thin b-As$_{0.83}$P$_{0.17}$ flake in semilog scale and linear scale (inset). (a-i) and (a-ii) are reproduced with permission from [9], (b-ii) from [12].

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Phototransistors based on b-P and b-AsP. (a-i) Device structure of few-layer b-P based phototransistor operating at UV light. (a-ii) Device structure of the b-P based photodetector for infrared detection. Inset: optical image of the phototransistor. (a-iii) The responsivity as a function of incident light power at $V_{\rm~ds}$ = 100 mV and $V_{\rm~ds}$ = 500 mV, respectively. (b-i) Photo response of a b-AsP based phototransistor operating at 8.05 $\mu~$m with a power density of 0.17 W$\cdot$cm$^{~-~2}$. Inset: optical image of this device. (b-ii) Cross-sectional diagram of the phototransistor based on hBN/b-As$_{0.83}$P$_{0.17}$/hBN heterostructure. (b-iii) The photocurrent as a function of $V_{\rm~gs}$. (a-i) is reproduced with permission from [62], (a-ii) and (a-iii) from [57], (b-i) from [13], and (b-ii) and (b-iii) from [29].

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Photodiodes based on b-P and b-AsP. (a-i) Schematic of the monolayer MoS$_{2}$/b-AsP photodiode. (a-ii) $I_{\rm~ds}$-$V_{\rm~ds}$ curves of the p-n photodiode based on monolayer MoS$_{2}$/b-AsP under the incident light with various powers. Inset: the detailed reverse region at bias from $-1$ V to 0 V. (b-i) The detectivity as a function of wavelength at $V_{\rm~ds}$ = 0 V. Compared with the detectivity of commercial thermistor bolometer [106]and PbSe mid-infrared detectors, the MoS$_{2}$/b-AsP photodiode shows great advantages. (b-ii) $I_{\rm~ds}$-$V_{\rm~ds}$ curve of the InSe/b-AsP diode at $V_{\rm~gs}$ = 10 V. Inset: schematic of the device. (a-i) and (a-ii) are reproduced with permission from [96], (b-i) from [13], and (b-iii) from [14].

  • Table 1  

    Table 1Electrical performance of b-AsP and b-P basedfield-effect transistors$^{\rm~a)}$

    MaterialsThickness (nm)Contact electrodeDielectric layerPassivation layerMobility (cm$^{2}\cdot$V$^{-1}\cdot$s$^{-1})$Ref.
    ex b-As$_{0.83}$P$_{0.17}$5–20Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$PMMA${h=}$ 307[13]
    ex b-As$_{0.83}$P$_{0.17}$37Cr-AuhBN-SiO$_{2}$hBN${h=}$ 79, ${e=}$ 83[29]
    ex b-As$_{0.83}$P$_{0.17}$15Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$PMMA${h=}$ 110[12]
    cal b-AsP1-layer${h=}$ 2100, ${e=}$ 14380 [59]
    ex b-P5–25Ti-AuAl$_{2}$O$_{3}$Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$${h=}$ 200[60]
    ex b-P8Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$${h=}$ 100, ${e=}$ 0.5[61]
    ex b-P4.5Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$PMMA${h=}$ 142[62]
    ex b-P6–7Ti-AuhBN${h=}$ 25, ${e=}$ 0.12[63]
    ex b-P5–15Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$${h=}$ 52[44]
    ex b-P20Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$${h=}$ 0.96[64]
    ${h=}$ 215, ${e=}$ 1
    ex b-P4.8Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$Cs$_{2}$CO$_{3}$${e=}$ 27[65]
    MoO$_{3}$${h=}$ 200
    ex Se doped b-PCr-AuSiO$_{2}$${h=}$ 561[66]
    ex b-PAuSiO$_{2}$Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$${h=}$ 100[67]
    ex b-P11.3Ti-AuAl$_{2}$O$_{3}$Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$${h=}$ 187[53]
    ex b-P7AuSiO$_{2}$Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$${h=}$ 230[56]
    ex b-P10Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$${h=}$ 286[9]
    ex b-P6.5Cr-AuSiO$_{2}$${h=}$ 984[10]
    ex b-P5Ti-PdSiO$_{2}$${h=}$ 205[19]
    ex b-P1.9TiSiO$_{2}$Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$${h=}$ 172, ${e=}$ 38[42]
    ex b-P8Cr-AuhBN-SiO$_{2}$hBN${h=}$ 1350[68]
    ex b-PAuhBN-SiO$_{2}$${h=}$ 400, ${e=}$ 83[46]
    ex b-P43$\pm~$2Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$MMA-PMMA${h=}$ 900[69]
    ex b-PCr-AuhBN-SiO$_{2}$hBN${h=}$ 5200 [70]
    ex b-P13ALSiO$_{2}$Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$${e=}$ 950[71]
    3${e=}$ 275
    ex Al doped b-P5Ti-AuSiO$_{2}$Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$${e=}$ 1495[72]
    ex Cu doped b-P10Ti-AuhBN${e=}$ 690[73]
    ex b-P18.7NiSiO$_{2}$${h=}$ 170[74]
    Pd${h=}$ 186
    ex b-P15Ti-AuAl$_{2}$O$_{3}$Al$_{2}$O$_{3}$${h=}$ 310, ${e=}$ 89[50]
    ex b-P13Ti-AuAl$_{2}$O$_{3}$PMMA${h=}$ 233[52]
    cal b-P1-layer${h=}$ 26000, ${e=}$ 1140[58]
    multi-layer${h=}$ 6400, ${e=}$ 1580


  • Table 2  

    Table 2Performance of b-AsP based photodetectors$^{\rm~a)}$

    MaterialTh (nm)Device structureWavelength (nm)$R$ (mA/W)EQE (%)Speed (ms)$D$* (cm$^2$ V$^{-1}$ s$^{-1}$) Ref.
    b-AsP25–35Phototransistor460080.0124, 0.00892.4 $\times$ 10$^{10}$[27]
    b-AsP5–20Phototransistor36621806.10.54, 0.521.06 $\times$ 10$^8$[13]
    MoS$_2$-b-AsPPhotodiode4290115.43.334.9 $\times$ 10$^9$[13]
    2360216.111.369.2 $\times$ 10$^9$
    MoS$_2$-b-AsP66, 59Photodiode5200.3710.009, 0.005[16]
    InSe-b-AsP10, 11.5Photodiode52010001.50.217, 0.0891 $\times$ 10$^{12}$[14]


  • Table 3  

    Table 3Performance of b-P based photodetectors$^{\rm~a)}$

    MaterialTh (nm)Device structureWavelength (nm)$R$ (mA/W)EQE (%)Speed (ms)$D$* (cm$^2$ V$^{-1}$ s$^{-1}$)Ref.
    b-P8Phototransistor6404.81, 4[61]
    b-P4.5PhototransistorUV9$\times$10$^7$1, 43$\times$10$^{13}$[62]
    p-n b-P10Phototransistor15505$\times$10$^3$3900.035, 0.04[105]
    b-P-C$_{\rm~S2}$CO$_3$4.8 Phototransistor405 1.88 576[65]
    Se doped b-PPhototransistor6351.53$\times$10$^4$2993[66]
    b-PPhototransistor155060.1, 0.3[84]
    WSe$_2$-BP-MoS$_2$Phototransistor5326.32$\times$10$^3$ 1.25$\times$10$^{11}$[102]
    b-P-MoS$_2$22, 12Photodiode1550153.4200.0153.1$\times10^{11}$[98]
    p-n b-PPhotodiode9400.1[63]
    b-P-MoS$_2$11, 0.9Photodiode6334180.3[96]
    p-n b-P30Photodiode12000.35[97]
    b-P-InSePhotodiode45511.73.224, 32[108]
    b-P23Waveguide3700 2$\times$10$^3$[107]
    b-P11Waveguide 1570–1580135 [104]



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