SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 4 : 140401(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-020-3151-5

Filling the gap: thermal properties and device applications of graphene

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  • ReceivedNov 10, 2020
  • AcceptedDec 28, 2020
  • PublishedMar 2, 2021



This work was supported in part by China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Institute of Information Science (Grant No. H1125), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 62022047, 61874065, 51861145202), National Key RD Program (Grant No. 2016YFA0200400), Research Fund from Beijing Innovation Center for Future Chip and the Independent Research Program of Tsinghua University (Grant No. 20193080047), Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by CAST (Grant No. 2018QNRC001), and Fok Ying-Tong Education Foundation (Grant No. 171051).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic of theory & modeling, experiment and device application of graphene. Gaps exist between theories of different scales and between experimental results and actual effect.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Methods used for measurement of thermal conductivity of 2D materials [47].

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Schematic of the experiment showing the excitation laser light focused on a graphene layer suspended across a trench. The focused laser light creates a local hot spot and generates a heat wave inside SLG propagating toward heat sinks [2].

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Schematic of the “heat spreader method" to measure the in-plane $\kappa$ of graphene encased in a film of ${\rm~SiO}_2$ [51,52].

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Schematic of our FDTR micro-scope. A digitally modulated pump laser heats the sample while a probe beam monitors the surface reflectivity. A balanced photodetector is used to improve the signal to noise ratio. A piezo stage is used to scan the sample for imaging [55].

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) (a) Schematic of the simulation structure. The thicknesses are not to scale [69]. (b) Temperature distribution obtained by finite element simulation. (c)–(e) Hot spot temperature before and after graphene is transferred onto the chip with the data from [70,71].

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) (a) Demonstration of principle of TIM [80]@Copyright 2020 the American Chemical Society. protectłinebreak (b) Composites' TC with different graphene layers, with data from [81].

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Simulation models of vertical graphene (a) nanowalls [93]and (b) arrays [94].

  • Table 1  

    Table 1Summary of computational results of $\kappa$ of graphene at room temperature (RT)

    $\kappa$ (W$\cdot~{\rm~m}^{-1}\cdot~{\rm~K}^{-1}$ Method Comment Ref.
    $\sim$2350 BTE $L=10~{\mu}$m [21]
    480–850 GK-MD $\kappa$ depends on stacking order [22]
    2000–5000 Valence force field, BTE Strong width dependence [23]
    8000–10000 MD, Tersoff Square graphene sheet [24]
  • Table 2  

    Table 2Summary of TC of graphene in experiments

    $\kappa~({\rm~W}\cdot~{\rm~m}^{-1}\cdot~{\rm~K}^{-1})$MethodMaterial type Ref.
    Optothermal Raman spectroscopy technique
    Suspended exfoliated single-layer graphene (SLG), room temperature (RT)
    1[1]*$\sim$ 3000–5300
    Suspended exfoliated SLG, RT
    1[1]*$\sim$ 3080–5150
    Suspended exfoliated SLG, RT
    2[2]*$\sim$ 1500–5000
    Optothermal Raman spectroscopy technique $+$ electrical burning
    Suspended chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, RT
    Optothermal Raman spectroscopy technique
    Suspended CVD graphene, 350 K
    Suspended CVD graphene, 500 K
    Graphene membrane, 600 K
    2[2]*below 160
    Heat spreader method ($3\omega$ method)
    Exfoliated SLG encased within silicon dioxide, RT
    $\sim~7000$ (crude estimate)
    All electrical, $3\omega$ method
    Substrate-supported CVD graphene, RT
    Thermal bridge
    SLG exfoliated on a silicon dioxide support
    Laser heating
    Exfoliated graphene supported on ${\rm~SiO}_2$, RT

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