SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 6 : 162403(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-020-3100-8

Detection of the interictal epileptic discharges based on wavelet bispectrum interaction and recurrent neural network

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  • ReceivedMay 5, 2020
  • AcceptedSep 3, 2020
  • PublishedApr 27, 2021



This work was supported in part by National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2019YFB2204500), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61874171), and Alibaba Group through Alibaba Innovative Research (AIR) Program.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Six events of TUEV EEG dataset. (a) SPSW; (b) GPED; (c) PLED; (d) EYEM; (e) ARTF; (f) BCKG.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Auto-interactions of the whole frequency range of six different IED events using the WBS method.protectłinebreak (a) SPSW; (b) GPED; (c) PLED; (d) EYEM; (e) ARTF; (f) BCKG.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Auto-interactions of six different IED events using the WBS method: rows represent the interactions of five frequency-bands of (a) SPSW, (b) GPED, (c) PLED, (d) EYEM, (e) ARTF, and (f) BCKG respectively, while columns represent the interactions between $\delta$ vs. $\delta$, $\theta$ vs. $\theta$, $\alpha$ vs. $\alpha$, $\beta$ vs. $\beta$, and $\gamma$ vs. $\gamma$ respectively.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Block diagram of the proposed system for detecting the epileptic IED discharges. The proposed system consists of four steps, namely data preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection and classification.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Feature extraction of the proposed system. The first step is segmenting the 1-s epoch into multiple timesteps (frames), then each timestep is decomposed into five bands and the WBS among the different bands are calculated. 180 features are calculated from the obtained 15 bispectrums and 10 features are extracted from the time domain.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) The proposed classifier of the proposed system.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Preparing data for training and testing the classification network using a 10-fold cross-validation method.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Performance results for varying units of the LSTM layers. (a) 2-way classifier; (b) 3-way classifier.

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Performance results for varying the neurons of the input layer. (a) 2-way classifier; (b) 3-way classifier.

  • Figure 10

    (Color online) Examining the informativeness of the selected features on the performance of the 2-way classifier.protectłinebreak (a) Replacing each feature by zero; (b) considering only one feature at each case.

  • Figure 11

    (Color online) DET curve of the five cases of the proposed system and the Golmohammedi's system.

  • Figure 12

    (Color online) Detection of IEDs for 10-s epoch of EEG recording in TUEV dataset. Red events are the TP detections, Green events are the FP detections, Pink events are the FN detections and Blue events are the TN detections.

  • Figure 13

    (Color online) DET curve of the proposed method and the existing methods.

  • Figure 14

    (Color online) Comparison between the traditional window segmentation method and the NEO-diff segmentation technique. (a) Moving Window segmentation method; (b) NEO-diff segmentation technique.

  • Table 1  

    Table 1State-of-the-art methods for detection of epileptic IED discharges

    Method Dataset DatasetFeatures FeaturesClassifierACCSEN SPEFPR PREC F1-scoreGmean
    availability method type(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
    Zacharaki et al. [3] One-subject with101 spikes(2 channels)NOLocality preserving projections (LPP)Amplitude-based Supportvectormachine(SVM)97 98.741.26%62.8 76.24 97.87
    Golmoham-medi etal. [8] Publicly largest TUH EEG dataset (390 subjects,22 channels) YesHidden Markov models (HMM)Deep learning90.195.114.89%92.6
    Carey et al.[9] 6 patients(one-channel)NO Artificialneuralnetwork (ANN) 82.68 72.777.37
    Lodder et al. [10] 23 patients with723 IEDs NO Template matching Amplitude-based SVM 902.36 (min) 23.10 36.76
    Malik et al. [11] 13 subjectsNO Gradient-based NEOAmplitude-based 74.1
    Liu et al. [12] 12 epileptic patients (16 channels)NO Morphological-based AdaBoost93.995.5 92.47.6%93.94
    Douget et al. [13] 17 subjects(3 channels) NO Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) Wavelet coefficient-based Randomforest62 2636.64
    Antonioet al. [14] two-subjects with96 spikesNOCross-correlationAmplitude-basedDecision tree97 8698 2%91.80
  • Table 2  

    Table 2Distribution of EEG's events in the TUEV EEG dataset

    Training set Testing set
    Event CountPercentage (%) CountPercentage (%)
    SPSW 6450.91 5671.93
    GPED 70509.54 467715.9
    PLED 41205.58 1998 6.79
    EYEM 9401.27 3291.12
    ARTF 932912.63 22047.49
    BCKG 5179070.11 1964666.78
    Total 73874100 29421 100
  • Table 3  

    Table 3Time-domian based features$^{\rm~a)}$

    1Mean of absolutevalue(X_rm avg= frac1
    )6Kurtosis of data (X_rm kurt=frac1
    2Maximum value (X_rm max=rm maxx_f)) 7Hjorth mobility(X_rm mob=rm mobx_w (n))=sqrtBig(fracrm varx_f^prime)rm varx_f)Big) )
    3 Sum of logarithmicamplitude (X_rm slog=∑n=1^Nx_f
    )8Hjorth complexity(X_rm comp=frac rm mobx_f^prime)rm mobx_f))
    4 Variance of data (X_σ=rm varx_w (n)=frac1
    )²) 9 Fractal dimensionindex (X_rm FD= frac łog_10 (N-1)łog_10d/L)+łog_10 (N-1))
    5Skewness of data(X_rm skew=frac1
    )³) 10Sample entropy(X_rm SE=-łog(A/B))
  • Table 4  

    Table 4Results of the optimized models

    Classifier modelResults
    (N_f) (N_rm lstm1)(N_rm lstm2) Gmean (%) F1-score (%) SPE (%) SEN (%)
    Model 1 2590902-way classifier95.6291.495.68 95.55
    Model 2256020 95.42 91.1795.48 95.36
    Model 3 25 90 80 3-way classifier75.16 64.16 85.86 67.07
    Model 4 25 60 40 74.28 61.67 84.74 65.88
    Model 5 20 60 40 75.16 63.27 85.4 67.33
  • Table 5  

    Table 5Results and confusion matrix of 2-way classification

    ResultsProposed system Golmohammedi's
    (N_f)=25, (N_rm lstm1)= 60, (N_rm lstm2)=20 system [8]
    Case 1Case 2Case 3Case 4Case 5
    (1 timesteps)(4 timesteps)(9 timesteps)(19 timesteps)(49 timesteps)
    Validating Testing Validating Testing Validating Testing Validating Testing Validating Testing
    Gmean (%)91.6890.8694.2792.1396.2193.9496.6994.5996.33 95.4292.6
    F1-score (%)90.4783.0493.4285.9295.5889.1796.1490.2195.7691.17
    SPE (%)91.0790.8694.0993.1595.6094.9396.2095.3796.2195.4895.11
    SEN (%)92.2990.8694.4691.1296.8492.9697.19 93.8196.4495.3690.1
    FPR (%)8.939.145.916.854. 3.79 4.52 4.89
    E90.869.1491.128.88 92.967.0493.816.19 95.364.6490.19.9
    NE9.1490.866.8593.155.0794.964.6395.374.52 95.484.8995.11
  • Table 6  

    Table 6Classification results of the six IED events

    MethodProposed system (case 5)Golmohammedi's system
    EYEM89.654.761.07 4.5279.312.3017.24 1.1500
    ARTF0.6976.0918.7010.18 14.0472.98 2.8100
    BCKG0.465.48 89.548.93 3.4281.405.95 0.300
    SPSW 4.6451.9915.4927.88 13.3310 33.3333.33100
    GPED8.1666.1421.0500.3 3.6517.63 65.0513.37
    PLED1311.7270.640.49010.7613.699.78 65.28
  • Table 7  

    Table 7Comparison of the proposed system with existing methods

    MethodACC (%)SEN (%)SPE (%)FPRPREC (%) F1-score Gmean
    Zacharaki et al. [3] 9798.741.26%62.876.2497.87
    Golmohammedi et al. [8]
    Carey et al. [9] 82.6872.777.37
    Lodder et al. [10] 902.36 (min)23.1036.76
    Malik et al. [11] 74.1
    Liu et al. [12] 93.995.592.47.6%93.94
    Douget et al. [13] 622636.64
    Antonio et al. [14] 9786982%91.80
    Proposed system95.4595.3695.484.52% 87.33 91.17 95.42

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