SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 63 , Issue 12 : 222401(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-020-3058-2

Narrow bandwidth fiber-optic spectral combs for renewable hydrogen detection

More info
  • ReceivedMay 21, 2020
  • AcceptedSep 3, 2020
  • PublishedNov 12, 2020



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 62035006, 61722505, 61975068, 62005101), Key Program of the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 2018B030311006), Guangdong Outstanding Scientific Innovation Foundation (Grant No. 2019TX05X383), Program of the China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201806780010), and Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) (Grant No. O001518F).


[1] She X, Shen Y, Wang J. Pd films on soft substrates: a visual, high-contrast and low-cost optical hydrogen sensor. Light Sci Appl, 2019, 8: 4 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[2] Xiao M, Liang S, Han J. Batch Fabrication of Ultrasensitive Carbon Nanotube Hydrogen Sensors with Sub-ppm Detection Limit. ACS Sens, 2018, 3: 749-756 CrossRef Google Scholar

[3] Wang Y, Zhao Z, Sun Y. Fabrication and gas sensing properties of Au-loaded SnO2 composite nanoparticles for highly sensitive hydrogen detection. Sens Actuat B-Chem, 2017, 240: 664-673 CrossRef Google Scholar

[4] Zhang Z, Zou X, Xu L. Hydrogen gas sensor based on metal oxide nanoparticles decorated graphene transistor. Nanoscale, 2015, 7: 10078-10084 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[5] Ma J, Zhou Y, Bai X. High-sensitivity and fast-response fiber-tip Fabry-Pérot hydrogen sensor with suspended palladium-decorated graphene. Nanoscale, 2019, 11: 15821-15827 CrossRef Google Scholar

[6] Fong N R, Berini P, Tait R N. Hydrogen sensing with Pd-coated long-range surface plasmon membrane waveguides. Nanoscale, 2016, 8: 4284-4290 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[7] Ji Y, Lu C, Zibar D. Special focus on artificial intelligence for optical communications. Sci China Inf Sci, 2020, 63: 160300 CrossRef Google Scholar

[8] Pu G, Zhang L, Hu W. Automatic mode-locking fiber lasers: progress and perspectives. Sci China Inf Sci, 2020, 63: 160404 CrossRef Google Scholar

[9] Caucheteur C, Guo T, Liu F. Ultrasensitive plasmonic sensing in air using optical fibre spectral combs. Nat Commun, 2016, 7: 13371 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[10] Jiao Y, Cao Z. Photonic integration technologies for indoor optical wireless communications. Sci China Inf Sci, 2018, 61: 080404 CrossRef Google Scholar

[11] Ma G M, Li C R, Mu R D. Fiber bragg grating sensor for hydrogen detection in power transformers. IEEE Trans Dielect Electr Insul, 2014, 21: 380-385 CrossRef Google Scholar

[12] Nugroho F A A, Darmadi I, Cusinato L, et al. Meta-polymer hybrid nanomaterials for plasmonic ultrafast hydrogen detection. Nat Mater, 2019, 18: 489--495. Google Scholar

[13] Victoria M, Westerwaal R J, Dam B. Amorphous Metal-Hydrides for Optical Hydrogen Sensing: The Effect of Adding Glassy Ni-Zr to Mg-Ni-H. ACS Sens, 2016, 1: 222-226 CrossRef Google Scholar

[14] Noh J S, Kim H, Kim B S. High-performance vertical hydrogen sensors using Pd-coated rough Si nanowires. J Mater Chem, 2011, 21: 15935 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Lin K, Lu Y, Chen J. Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor based on metallic grating with high sensitivity. Opt Express, 2008, 16: 18599-18604 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[16] Wang Z, Li Z, Jiang T. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2013, 5: 2013-2021 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Cho M, Zhu J, Kim H. Half-Pipe Palladium Nanotube-Based Hydrogen Sensor Using a Suspended Nanofiber Scaffold. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2019, 11: 13343-13349 CrossRef Google Scholar

[18] Zhang X, Cai S, Liu F. J Mater Chem C, 2018, 6: 5161-5170 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] Masuzawa S, Okazaki S, Maru Y. Catalyst-type-an optical fiber sensor for hydrogen leakage based on fiber Bragg gratings. Sens Actuat B-Chem, 2015, 217: 151-157 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Caucheteur C, Debliquy M, Lahem D. Catalytic Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor for Hydrogen Leak Detection in Air. IEEE Photon Technol Lett, 2008, 20: 96-98 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[21] Wadell C, Syrenova S, Langhammer C. Plasmonic Hydrogen Sensing with Nanostructured Metal Hydrides. ACS Nano, 2014, 8: 11925-11940 CrossRef Google Scholar

[22] Hübert T, Boon-Brett L, Black G. Hydrogen sensors - A review. Sens Actuat B-Chem, 2011, 157: 329-352 CrossRef Google Scholar

[23] Palmisano V, Weidner E, Boon-Brett L. Selectivity and resistance to poisons of commercial hydrogen sensors. Int J Hydrogen Energy, 2015, 40: 11740-11747 CrossRef Google Scholar

[24] Clerbaux C, Edwards D P, Deeter M. Carbon monoxide pollution from cities and urban areas observed by the Terra/MOPITT mission. Geophys Res Lett, 2008, 35: L03817 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[25] Schwarz R B, Khachaturyan A G. Thermodynamics of open two-phase systems with coherent interfaces: Application to metal-hydrogen systems. Acta Mater, 2006, 54: 313-323 CrossRef Google Scholar

[26] Cai S, González-Vila , Zhang X. Palladium-coated plasmonic optical fiber gratings for hydrogen detection. Opt Lett, 2019, 44: 4483-4486 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[27] Sayago I, Terrado E, Aleixandre M. Novel selective sensors based on carbon nanotube films for hydrogen detection. Sens Actuat B-Chem, 2007, 122: 75-80 CrossRef Google Scholar

[28] Albert J, Shao L Y, Caucheteur C. Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors. Laser Photonics Rev, 2013, 7: 83-108 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[29] Guo T. Fiber Grating-Assisted Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biochemical and Electrochemical Sensing. J Lightwave Technol, 2017, 35: 3323-3333 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[30] Xu O, Lu S H, Jian S S. Theoretical analysis of polarization properties for tilted fiber Bragg gratings. Sci China Inf Sci, 2010, 53: 390-397 CrossRef Google Scholar

[31] Lu S H, Xu O, Feng S C. Analysis of coupling from core mode to counter-propagating radiation modes in tilted fiber Bragg gratings. Sci China Inf Sci, 2010, 53: 1078-1088 CrossRef Google Scholar

[32] Sypabekova M, Korganbayev S, González-Vila . Functionalized etched tilted fiber Bragg grating aptasensor for label-free protein detection. Biosens Bioelectron, 2019, 146: 111765 CrossRef Google Scholar

[33] Si Y, Lao J, Zhang X. Electrochemical Plasmonic Fiber-optic Sensors for Ultra-Sensitive Heavy Metal Detection. J Lightwave Technol, 2019, 37: 3495-3502 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[34] Marquez-Cruz V, Albert J. High Resolution NIR TFBG-Assisted Biochemical Sensors. J Lightwave Technol, 2015, 33: 3363-3373 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[35] Liu F, Albert J. 40 GHz-rate all-optical cross-modulation of core-guided near infrared light in single mode fiber by surface plasmons on gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings. APL Photonics, 2019, 4: 126104 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[36] Chiavaioli F, Gouveia C, Jorge P. Towards a Uniform Metrological Assessment of Grating-Based Optical Fiber Sensors: From Refractometers to Biosensors. Biosensors, 2017, 7: 23 CrossRef Google Scholar

[37] Chen H, Kou X, Yang Z. Shape- and Size-Dependent Refractive Index Sensitivity of Gold Nanoparticles. Langmuir, 2008, 24: 5233-5237 CrossRef Google Scholar

[38] Mehra R. Application of refractive index mixing rules in binary systems of hexadecane and heptadecane withn-alkanols at different temperatures. J Chem Sci, 2003, 115: 147-154 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Johnson P, Christy R. Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd. Phys Rev B, 1974, 9: 5056-5070 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[40] Chiavaioli F, Zubiate P, Del Villar I. Femtomolar Detection by Nanocoated Fiber Label-Free Biosensors. ACS Sens, 2018, 3: 936-943 CrossRef Google Scholar

[41] Zhou W, Mandia D J, Barry S T. Absolute near-infrared refractometry with a calibrated tilted fiber Bragg grating. Opt Lett, 2015, 40: 1713 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[42] Guo T, Liu F, Liu Y. In-situ detection of density alteration in non-physiological cells with polarimetric tilted fiber grating sensors. Biosens Bioelectron, 2014, 55: 452-458 CrossRef Google Scholar

[43] Sutapun B. Pd-coated elastooptic fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for multiplexed hydrogen sensing. Sens Actuat B-Chem, 1999, 60: 27-34 CrossRef Google Scholar

[44] Allison E G, Bond G C. The Structure and Catalytic Properties of Palladium-Silver and Palladium-Gold Alloys. Catal Rev, 1972, 7: 233-289 CrossRef Google Scholar

[45] Liu Y, Liang B, Zhang X. Plasmonic Fiber-Optic Photothermal Anemometers With Carbon Nanotube Coatings. J Lightwave Technol, 2019, 37: 3373-3380 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[46] Lao J J, Sun P, Liu F, et al. In situ plasmonic optical fiber detection of the state of charge of supercapacitors for renewable energy storage. Light Sci Appl, 2018, 7: 34. Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) (a) The schematic of TFBG in terms of cut-off surface resonance hydrogen sensing principle;protect łinebreak (b) the sketch of hydrogen-induced phase transition from metal state to metal hydride state over palladium-gold alloy protect łinebreak nanocoating.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) (a) Simulation of the cut-off mode's energy distribution when TFBG with and without Pd-Au alloy coating in S-polarized light. The inlay highlight enlarged detail of the energy distribution on the surface of the alloy layer. (b) Photograph of the Pd-Au alloy coated fiber-optic sensor. Inset: cross-section of the cut-off mode's energy distribution.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Transmission spectra of bare $37^\circ$ TFBG as a function of SRI (offset on the vertical scale, and the cut-off position is marked by the red asterisk).

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) The setup to clarify the sensing characteristics of the sensor in the hydrogen environment.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) (a) The transmitted amplitude spectra of a bare TFBG and Pd-Au alloy nanocoated TFBG in air; (b) the enlarged detail of the cut-off surface mode resonance when a sensor is exposed to pure air to air with 2% hydrogen and a schematic cross-section of cut-off mode's optical field distribution for the Pd-Au alloy nanocoated TFBG; (c) the core mode used as for temperature elimination.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Sensor's response time for hydrogen detection with pure Pd and Pd-Au alloy nanocoatings.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Sensor's repeatability in the hydrogen cycling detection with pure Pd and Pd-Au alloy nanocoatings, respectively.

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) (a) Sensing response of hydrogen with the concentration range from 0%–2% in volume; (b) the linear response of the sensor.

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Morphology of the nanocoatings (a) pure Pd, (b) Pd-Au alloy after the sensor is exposed to the presence of the hydrogen, and (c) X-ray diffractograms of coating materials over the fiber.