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SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 4 : 140302(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-020-2986-8

Application of NOMA for cellular-connected UAVs: opportunities and challenges

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  • ReceivedMar 19, 2020
  • AcceptedJul 17, 2020
  • PublishedMar 1, 2021

Abstract


Acknowledgment

The work of Z G Ding was supported by the UK EPSRC (Grant No. EP/P009719/2). This work was also supported in part by H2020-MSCA-RISE-2015 (Grant No. 690750) and Ministry of Education Malaysia and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Grant Nos. 4J416, 08G83, 19H58, 04G37).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Superiority of NOMA over OMA. (a) Rate region; (b) gain over FDMA.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Downlink multi-cell networks with co-existence of AU and TU.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Ground-to-air channel. (a) Channel attenuation; (b) probability of LOS.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Signal characteristics. (a) Coverage probability; (b) desired signal strength; (c) ICI level.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Signal behaviors. (a) Coverage probability; (b) desired signal; (c) NOMA co-channel interference.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) NOMA vs. OMA. (a) Average TU rate; (b) average AU rate.

  • Table 1  

    Table 1Summary of related work

    Reference System Work type Key findings
    [14-25] OMA G2A channel: analysis, measurement, Effects of LOS/NLOS, sidelobe, coverage holes,
    simulation, modeling shadowing, small-scale fading, interference, mobility
    [18,19] OMA Air-to-ground (A2G) channel: analysis, Probability of LOS/NLOS
    measurement, simulation, modeling
    [24,26-33] OMA ICI: analysis and mitigation methods Coding, user association, transmitting,
    and receiving strategies could efficiently mitigate ICI
    [34-36] OMA Massive MIMO Array gain and spatial multiplexing can be obtained
    [37-43] OMA AUs' trajectories AUs may plan their optimal trajectories
    based on existing cellular infrastructure
    [12,13,45-47] NOMA Uplink NOMA technique can further be used to
    [9,48,49] Downlink improve AUs' performance
  • Table 2  

    Table 2Simulation parameters

    Parameter Value Parameter Value
    ($\varphi$, $\xi$, $\zeta$) (1, 0.151, 1) $G^{\text{rx}}_u$/$G^{\text{rx}}_t~$ 1 dB
    ($E_u$, $E_t$) ($-3$, 10) dB $(m^{\text{L}}_{u}$, $m^{\text{N}}_{u}$, $m_t$) (3, 2, 1)
    $\lambda_b$ 10 BSs/km$^2$ ($\theta^{\text{L}}_{u}$, $\theta^{\text{N}}_{u}$, $\theta_t$) ($\frac{1}{3}$, $\frac{1}{2}$, $1$)
    $B_{\rm~w}$ 180 KHz/RB $f_{\rm~c}$ 2 GHz