SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 6 : 162402(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-020-2959-6

Tuning the pinning direction of giant magnetoresistive sensor by post annealing process

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  • ReceivedMar 20, 2020
  • AcceptedJun 15, 2020
  • PublishedApr 15, 2021



The work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61627813), International Collaboration Project B16001, and VR Innovation Platform from Qingdao Science and Technology Commission.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) (a) Image of a full 6-inch wafer and single device of Wheatstone bridge in the center field. (b) The Kerr loop of the full film measured at room temperature. (c) The $R$-$H$ curve of the patterned device with the indicated magnetic directions of two pinned layers (P1, P2) and free layer (FL), respectively, and the inset shows the $R$-$H$ curve of the full film.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) (a) The $R$-$H$ loop of a GMR transducer along the annealing direction. (b) The $R$-$H$ loop of a GMR transducer perpendicular to the annealing direction. (c) The $R$-$H$ loop of a GMR transducer with an angle of $-45^{\circ}$ to the annealing direction, and (d) the $R$-$H$ loop of a GMR transducer with an angle of $45^{\circ}$ to the annealing direction.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) The simplified film stack and schematic geometry of the magnetization $M$ in each layer of transducer.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) (a) The $R$-$H$ curve of $-45^{\circ}$ GMR transducer under $Y$ direction $H_{\rm~ext}$. (b) ${\rm~MR}$-$H$ curve of a GMR transducer under $Y$ direction $H_{\rm~ext}$ where $\theta_1$ is set to $25^{\circ}$ and $\theta_2$ is set to $-155^{\circ}$ to match the measured pinning direction. (c) $45^{\circ}$ GMR transducer result and (d) the correspondent simulation with $\theta_1~=~-53^{\circ}$ and and $\theta_2~=~127^{\circ}$. $R$-$H$ loop calculated with the following parameters: ${\rm~MR}=~6.05%$, $M_{\rm~FL}$ = 1060 $\rm~emu/cm^3$, $M_{\rm~P1}$ = 1580 $\rm~emu/cm^3$, $M_{\rm~P2}$ = 1850 $\rm~emu/cm^3$, $H_{\rm~in}$ = 2 mT, $H_{\rm~kFL}$ = 1 mT, $H_{\rm~kP1}$ = 3 mT, $H_{\rm~kP2}$ = 3 mT, $H_{\rm~ex}$ = 200 mT, $H_{\rm~P1P2}$ = 500 mT, $t_{\rm~FL}=~3\times~10^{-7}$ cm, $t_{\rm~P1}=~2\times~10^{-7}$ cm, $t_{\rm~P2}=~2.1\times~10^{-7}$ cm and $W~=~2\times~10^{-4}$ cm.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) (a) The output of bridge under a 1 V bias voltage and (b) the angular dependence output of full Wheatstone bridge under an environmental magnetic field.


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