SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 63 , Issue 8 : 180505(2020) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-020-2954-5

Experimental observation of coherent interaction between laser and erbium ions ensemble doped in fiber at sub 10 mK

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  • ReceivedMay 23, 2020
  • AcceptedJun 10, 2020
  • PublishedJul 15, 2020



This work was supported by National Key RD Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFA0307400), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61775025, 91836102, 61705033, 61405030, 61308041), Alberta Major Innovation Fund and the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) (a) Schematics of main components in the dilution refrigerator. It shows the different temperature flanges, including the 50 K flange, quasi-4 K flange, still flange, cold-plate, and mixing chamber flange. The Er$^{3+}$-doped fiber sample is placed in the center of the magnetic coil under the mixing chamber flange. (b) Photograph of the sample holder for Er$^{3+}$-doped fiber. A red light beam is injected into the fiber to coarsely determine whether there is any strongly scattering point along the routine of light. (c) Experimental setup for optical nutation measurements. The laser wavelength is tunable from 1528 to 1537 nm in the experiment. VOA2 (variable optical attenuator2) is used to protect the PD2 from the high peak power; AOM; AFG; BS, 95:5 beam splitter; PD, PD1, and PD2 are connected to ports with low and high beam splitting ratios, respectively; OSC, oscilloscope.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Absorption spectrum of the $^4$I$_{15/2}$-$^4$I$_{13/2}$ transition of Er$^{3+}$ in the 9.5-m-long fiber. The results of optical depth at different wavelengths are used to calculate the transition dipole moment.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) (a) The observed optical nutation signals of Er$^{3+}$-doped fiber at the wavelength of 1533 nm. The excitation pulses of peak power used to calculate Rabi frequency range from 0.71 to 6.05 mW (shown with different colors). (b) The power dependence of $\Omega^2$. The input laser wavelengths are set at 1529 nm (circle), 1531 nm (triangle), 1533 nm (quadrate), 1535 nm (pentagon), and 1537 nm (hexagon). The solid lines are the result of linear fitting.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Dependence of transition dipole moment on magnetic field. Measurements are carried out under different strengths of magnetic field. Various laser wavelengths are in different colors.

  • Table 1  

    Table 1Calculated $^4$I$_{15/2}$-$^4$I$_{13/2}$ transition dipole moments of erbium ions in fiber at various laser wavelengths

    Wavelength (nm) Transition dipole moment (10$^{-32}$ C$\cdot$m)Wavelength (nm) Transition dipole moment (10$^{-32}$ C$\cdot$m)
    1528 2.634$\pm$0.009 1533 2.814$\pm$0.008
    1529 2.691$\pm$0.008 1534 2.926$\pm$0.006
    1530 2.714$\pm$0.008 1535 2.983$\pm$0.009
    1531 2.745$\pm$0.010 1536 3.037$\pm$0.008
    1532 2.794$\pm$0.008 1537 3.161$\pm$0.007