SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 6 : 161301(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-2928-9

An overview of protected satellite communications in intelligent age

More info
  • ReceivedOct 30, 2019
  • AcceptedMay 25, 2020
  • PublishedMay 10, 2021



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1836201).


[1] Zeitouni P, Lane D, Trippett M. Protected wideband military satellite communications. In: Proceedings of Space 2004 Conference and Exhibit, 2004. 5849. Google Scholar

[2] Shah S M J, Nasir A, Ahmed H. A survey paper on security issues in satellite communication network infrastructure. Int J Eng Res Gen Sci, 2014, 2: 887--900. Google Scholar

[3] Tarleton R, Shively S, Armstrong B, et al. Transformational communications architecture for the department of defense, intelligence community and NASA. In: Proceedings of the 24th AIAA International Communications Satellite Systems Conference, 2006. 5424. Google Scholar

[4] Daily D I. Next-stage C4ISR bandwidth: the AEHF satellite program. 2012. Google Scholar

[5] Forest B D. An Analysis of Military Use of Commercial Satellite Communications. Technical Report, 2008. Google Scholar

[6] Fritz D A, Doshi B T, Oak A C, et al. Military satellite communications: space-based communications for the global information grid. Johns Hopkins APL Tech Digest, 2006, 27: 32--40. Google Scholar

[7] Jo K Y. Satellite Communications Network Design and Analysis. Boston: Artech House, 2011. Google Scholar

[8] Maini A K. Handbook of Defence Electronics and Optronics: Fundamentals, Technologies and Systems. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2018. Google Scholar

[9] Board A F S. Pre-milestone a and early-phase systems engineering: a retrospective review and benefits for future air force systems acquisition. Washington: National Academies Press, 2008. Google Scholar

[10] Wang Q, Nguyen T, Pham K, et al. Satellite jamming: a game theoretic analysis. In: Proceedings of IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), 2017. 141--146. Google Scholar

[11] Chapin E H. Scintillation Effects, Mitigations and Recommendations for Afsatcom and Other Satellite Communications Systems. Technical Report, 1981. Google Scholar

[12] Adamy D. EW 101: A First Course in Electronic Warfare, Volume 101. Boston: Artech House, 2001. Google Scholar

[13] Adamy D. EW 103: Tactical Battlefield Communications Electronic Warfare. Boston: Artech House, 2008. Google Scholar

[14] Bash B A, Goeckel D, Towsley D. Covert Communication Gains From Adversary's Ignorance of Transmission Time. IEEE Trans Wireless Commun, 2016, 15: 8394-8405 CrossRef Google Scholar

[15] Mills R F, Prescott G E. Waveform design and analysis of frequency hopping LPI networks. In: Proceedings Military Communications Conference, 1995. 778--782. Google Scholar

[16] Diamant R, Lampe L. Low Probability of Detection for Underwater Acoustic Communication: A Review. IEEE Access, 2018, 6: 19099-19112 CrossRef Google Scholar

[17] Raviprakash G, Tripathi P, Ravi B. Generation of low probability of intercept signals. Int J Sci Eng Technol, 2013, 2: 835--839. Google Scholar

[18] Zheng T, Chen G, Wang X. Real-time intelligent big data processing: technology, platform, and applications. Sci China Inf Sci, 2019, 62: 082101 CrossRef Google Scholar

[19] Hua B, Huang Y, Wu Y. Spacecraft formation reconfiguration trajectory planning with avoidance constraints using adaptive pigeon-inspired optimization. Sci China Inf Sci, 2019, 62: 070209 CrossRef Google Scholar

[20] Scholtz R. Notes on Spread-Spectrum History. IEEE Trans Commun, 1983, 31: 82-84 CrossRef Google Scholar

[21] Simon M K, Omura J K, Scholtz R A, et al. Spread Spectrum Communications, Volume 1. Rockville: Computer Science Press, 1985. Google Scholar

[22] Peterson R L, Ziemer R E, Borth D E. Introduction to Spread-Spectrum Communications, Volume 995. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice hall, 1995. Google Scholar

[23] Xu W Y. Jamming attack defense. In: Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security. Berlin: Springer, 2011. 655--661. Google Scholar

[24] Hasan M, Thakur J M, Podder P. Design and Implementation of FHSS and DSSS for Secure Data Transmission. IJSPS, 2015, 4 CrossRef Google Scholar

[25] Rouissi N, Gharsellaoui H, Bouamama S. A hybrid DS-FH-THSS approach anti-jamming in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications (SERA), 2016. 133--139. Google Scholar

[26] Berni A, Gregg W. On the Utility of Chirp Modulation for Digital Signaling. IEEE Trans Commun, 1973, 21: 748-751 CrossRef Google Scholar

[27] Springer A, Gugler W, Huemer M, et al. Spread spectrum communications using chirp signals. In: Proceedings of Information Systems for Enhanced Public Safety and Security, 2000. 166--170. Google Scholar

[28] Winter D. Haig's Command: A Reassessment. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books, 2004. Google Scholar

[29] Galdorisi G, Mroczek A, Volner R. C2 of Next-generation Satellites. Technical Report, 2013. Google Scholar

[30] Poisel R. Modern Communications Jamming Principles and Techniques. Boston: Artech House, 2011. Google Scholar

[31] Cho S, Goulart A, Akyildiz I F, et al. An adaptive FEC with QOS provisioning for real-time traffic in LEO satellite networks. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2001. 2938--2942. Google Scholar

[32] Elias P. Coding for noisy channels. IRE Conv Rec, 1955, 3: 37--46. Google Scholar

[33] Viterbi A. Error bounds for convolutional codes and an asymptotically optimum decoding algorithm. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 1967, 13: 260-269 CrossRef Google Scholar

[34] Bahl L, Cocke J, Jelinek F, et al. Optimal decoding of linear codes for minimizing symbol error rate. IEEE Trans Inform Theory, 1974, 20: 284--287. Google Scholar

[35] Berrou C. Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, 1993. Google Scholar

[36] Gallager R. Low-density parity-check codes. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 1962, 8: 21-28 CrossRef Google Scholar

[37] MacKay D J C. Good error-correcting codes based on very sparse matrices. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 1999, 45: 399-431 CrossRef Google Scholar

[38] Arikan E. Channel Polarization: A Method for Constructing Capacity-Achieving Codes for Symmetric Binary-Input Memoryless Channels. IEEE Trans Inform Theor, 2009, 55: 3051-3073 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Yi C, Zhang T Q, Hu R, et al. An interleaving approach of enhancing the performance of RS codes in two dimensional space. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing, 2012. 1513--1517. Google Scholar

[40] Liu X J, Wei Y J, Jiang M. A universal interleaver design for bit-interleaved QC-LDPC coded modulation. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing, 2017. Google Scholar

[41] Fonseka J P, Dowling E M, Brown T K. Constrained Interleaving of Turbo Product Codes. IEEE Commun Lett, 2012, 16: 1365-1368 CrossRef Google Scholar

[42] Mahdavifar H, El-Khamy M, Lee J. Polar Coding for Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 2016, 65: 3115-3127 CrossRef Google Scholar

[43] Rivest R L, Shamir A, Adleman L. A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems. Commun ACM, 1978, 21: 120-126 CrossRef Google Scholar

[44] Bhanot R, Hans R. A Review and Comparative Analysis of Various Encryption Algorithms. IJSIA, 2015, 9: 289-306 CrossRef Google Scholar

[45] Mahajan P, Sachdeva A. A study of encryption algorithms AES, DES and RSA for security. Global J Comput Sci Technol, 2013, 13: 15. Google Scholar

[46] Mandal P C. Evaluation of performance of the symmetric key algorithms: DES, 3DES, AES and blowfish. J Global Res Comput Sci, 2012, 3: 67--70. Google Scholar

[47] Gobi M, Sridevi R, Rahini R. A comparative study on the performance and the security of RSA and ECC algorithm. In: Proceedings of Conference on Advanced Networking and Applications, 2015. Google Scholar

[48] Creado O M, Wu X, Wang Y, et al. Probabilistic encryption — a comparative analysis against RSA and ECC. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology, 2009. 1123--1129. Google Scholar

[49] Vanstone S A. Next generation security for wireless: elliptic curve cryptography. Comput Security, 2003, 22: 412-415 CrossRef Google Scholar

[50] Bensikaddour E H, Bentoutou Y, Taleb N. Satellite image encryption method based on AES-CTR algorithm and geffe generator. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, 2017. 247--252. Google Scholar

[51] Bentoutou Y, Bensikaddour E H, Taleb N. An improved image encryption algorithm for satellite applications. Adv Space Res, 2020, 66: 176-192 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[52] Jeon S, Choi J P. CFB-AES-turbo: joint encryption and channel coding for secure satellite data transmission. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2019. Google Scholar

[53] Pirzada S J H, Murtaza A, Jianwei L, et al. The parallel cmac authenticated encryption algorithm for satellite communication. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication, 2019. Google Scholar

[54] Sheriff R E, Hu Y F. Mobile Satellite Communication Networks. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2003. Google Scholar

[55] Brand J C. Protected transitional solution to transformational satellite communications. In: Proceedings of Digital Wireless Communications VII and Space Communication Technologies, 2005. 366--373. Google Scholar

[56] Du C, Zhang Z, Wang X. Optimal Duplex Mode Selection for D2D-Aided Underlaying Cellular Networks. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 2020, 69: 3119-3134 CrossRef Google Scholar

[57] Haykin S. Adaptive Filter Theory. Delhi: Pearson Education India, 2005. Google Scholar

[58] Dixit S, Nagaria D. LMS Adaptive Filters for Noise Cancellation: A Review. IJECE, 2017, 7: 2520 CrossRef Google Scholar

[59] Zakharov Y V, White G P, Liu J. Low-Complexity RLS Algorithms Using Dichotomous Coordinate Descent Iterations. IEEE Trans Signal Process, 2008, 56: 3150-3161 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[60] Montazeri M, Duhamel P. A set of algorithms linking NLMS and block RLS algorithms. IEEE Trans Signal Process, 1995, 43: 444-453 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[61] Slock D T M. On the convergence behavior of the LMS and the normalized LMS algorithms. IEEE Trans Signal Process, 1993, 41: 2811-2825 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[62] Jae Chon Lee , Chong Kwan Un . Performance analysis of frequency-domain block LMS adaptive digital filters. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst, 1989, 36: 173-189 CrossRef Google Scholar

[63] Jenq-Tay Yuan , Jenq-Nan Lee . Narrow-band interference rejection in ds/cdma systems using adaptive (qrd-lsl)-based nonlinear acm interpolators. IEEE Trans Veh Technol, 2003, 52: 374-379 CrossRef Google Scholar

[64] Vijayan R, Poor H V. Nonlinear techniques for interference suppression in spread-spectrum systems. IEEE Trans Commun, 1990, 38: 1060-1065 CrossRef Google Scholar

[65] Li H B, Tian H L. A new VSS-LMS adaptive filtering algorithm and its application in adaptive noise jamming cancellation system. In: Proceedings of IEEE Circuits and Systems International Conference on Testing and Diagnosis, 2009. Google Scholar

[66] Dilli O, Koyuncu M, Akçam N, et al. Secure communication tests carried out with next generation narrow band terminal in satellite and local area networks. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, 2013. 493--498. Google Scholar

[67] Morlet C, Lan N, La Barbera S. Satellite communication requirements for 4D air traffic management. In: Proceedings of Integrated Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Conference, 2013. Google Scholar

[68] Liu G, Ji H, Li Y, et al. TCP performance enhancement for mobile broadband interactive satellite communication system: a cross-layer approach. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Communications and Networking in China, 2013. 822--827. Google Scholar

[69] Yu X Y, Yang Y, Ding J J. Satellite network design method applicable to orbit determination and communication for GNSS. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science, 2013. 886--889. Google Scholar

[70] Sharma S K, Chatzinotas S, Ottersten B. Satellite cognitive communications: interference modeling and techniques selection. In: Proceedings of the 6th Advanced Satellite Multimedia Systems Conference and the 12th Signal Processing for Space Communications Workshop, 2012. 111--118. Google Scholar

[71] Clare L, Clement B, Gao J, et al. Space-based networking technology developments in the interplanetary network directorate information technology program. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Space Mission Challenges for Information Technology, 2006. Google Scholar

[72] Tasca D M, Peden J C. Emp Surge Suppression Connectors Utilizing Metal Oxide Varistors. Technical Report, 1974. Google Scholar

[73] Wang X, Zhang Z, Long K. Secure Beamforming for Multiple-Antenna Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks. IEEE Trans Signal Process, 2016, 64: 1477-1492 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[74] Rong B, Zhang Z, Zhao X. Robust Superimposed Training Designs for MIMO Relaying Systems Under General Power Constraints. IEEE Access, 2019, 7: 80404-80420 CrossRef Google Scholar

[75] Qian J, He Z, Xie J. Null broadening adaptive beamforming based on covariance matrix reconstruction and similarity constraint. EURASIP J Adv Signal Process, 2017, 2017(1): 1 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[76] Luo S, Zhang Z, Wang S. Network for hypersonic UCAV swarms. Sci China Inf Sci, 2020, 63: 140311 CrossRef Google Scholar

[77] Jae Hee Kim , Wee Sang Park . Sectoral Conical Beam Former for a 2 $\times$ 2 Array Antenna. Antennas Wirel Propag Lett, 2009, 8: 712-715 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[78] Moulder W F, Khalil W, Volakis J L. 60-GHz Two-Dimensionally Scanning Array Employing Wideband Planar Switched Beam Network. Antennas Wirel Propag Lett, 2010, 9: 818-821 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[79] Stewart R G, Hampel D. EMP hardened CMOS circuits. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci, 1974, 21: 332-339 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[80] Rudie N J. Principles and Techniques of Radiation Hardening. North Hollywood: Western Periodicals Company, 1986. Google Scholar

[81] Miller C R. Electromagnetic Pulse Threats in 2010. Technical Report, 2005. Google Scholar

[82] Tront J. Predicting URF Upset of MOSFET Digital IC's. IEEE Trans Electromagn Compat, 1985, EMC-27: 64-69 CrossRef Google Scholar

[83] Laurin J, Zaky S G, Balmain K G. On the prediction of digital circuit susceptibility to radiated EMI. IEEE Trans Electromagn Compat, 1995, 37: 528--535. Google Scholar

[84] David Yang H Y, Kollman R. Analysis of High-Power RF Interference on Digital Circuits. Electromagnetics, 2006, 26: 87-102 CrossRef Google Scholar

[85] Zhongshan Zhang , Keping Long , Jianping Wang . On Swarm Intelligence Inspired Self-Organized Networking: Its Bionic Mechanisms, Designing Principles and Optimization Approaches. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials, 2014, 16: 513-537 CrossRef Google Scholar

[86] Hu Y, Wang J, Liang J. A self-organizing multimodal multi-objective pigeon-inspired optimization algorithm. Sci China Inf Sci, 2019, 62: 70206 CrossRef Google Scholar

[87] Baltrusaitis T, Ahuja C, Morency L P. Multimodal Machine Learning: A Survey and Taxonomy. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell, 2019, 41: 423-443 CrossRef Google Scholar

[88] Ngiam J, Khosla A, Kim M, et al. Multimodal deep learning. In: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Machine Learning, 2011. 689--696. Google Scholar

[89] Wang D X, Cui P, Ou M D, et al. Deep multimodal hashing with orthogonal regularization. In: Proceedings of the 24th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2015. Google Scholar

[90] Jia X, Gavves E, Fernando B, et al. Guiding the long-short term memory model for image caption generation. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on computer vision, 2015. 2407--2415. Google Scholar

[91] Brown P F, Pietra V J D, Pietra S A D, et al. The mathematics of statistical machine translation: parameter estimation. Comput Linguist, 1993, 19: 263--311. Google Scholar

[92] Yuhas B P, Goldstein M H, Sejnowski T J. Integration of acoustic and visual speech signals using neural networks. IEEE Commun Mag, 1989, 27: 65-71 CrossRef Google Scholar

[93] Lan Z, Bao L, Yu S I. Multimedia classification and event detection using double fusion. Multimed Tools Appl, 2014, 71: 333-347 CrossRef Google Scholar

[94] Khan A, Aftab F, Zhang Z. BICSF: Bio-Inspired Clustering Scheme for FANETs. IEEE Access, 2019, 7: 31446-31456 CrossRef Google Scholar

[95] Grossberg S. Nonlinear neural networks: Principles, mechanisms, and architectures. Neural Networks, 1988, 1: 17-61 CrossRef Google Scholar

[96] Holland J H et al. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems: An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992. Google Scholar

[97] Darwin C. On the Origin of Species. London: John Murray, 1859. Google Scholar

[98] Aytug H, Khouja M, Vergara F E. Use of genetic algorithms to solve production and operations management problems: A review. Int J Production Res, 2003, 41: 3955-4009 CrossRef Google Scholar

[99] Dimopoulos C, Zalzala A M S. Recent developments in evolutionary computation for manufacturing optimization: problems, solutions, and comparisons. IEEE Trans Evol Computat, 2000, 4: 93-113 CrossRef Google Scholar

[100] Goldberg D E. Genetic Algorithms. Delhi: Pearson Education India, 2006. Google Scholar

[101] Reeves T C, Hedberg J G. Interactive Learning Systems Evaluation. Englewood Cliffs: Educational Technology, 2003. Google Scholar

[102] Dorigo M, Birattari M. Ant Colony Optimization. Berlin: Springer, 2010. Google Scholar

[103] Gandomi A H, Yang X S, Alavi A H. Cuckoo search algorithm: a metaheuristic approach to solve structural optimization problems. Eng Comput, 2013, 29: 17-35 CrossRef Google Scholar

[104] Gandomi A H, Yang X S, Alavi A H. Mixed variable structural optimization using Firefly Algorithm. Comput Struct, 2011, 89: 2325-2336 CrossRef Google Scholar

[105] Yang X S, He X. Bat algorithm: literature review and applications. IJBIC, 2013, 5: 141-149 CrossRef Google Scholar

[106] Bains A S. An Overview of Millimeter Wave Communications for Military Applications. DSJ, 1993, 43: 27-36 CrossRef Google Scholar

[107] Alley R B, Brigham-Grette J, Miller G H, et al. Past Climate Variability and Change in the Arctic and at High Latitudes. Technical Report, 2009. Google Scholar

[108] Cheffena M. High-Capacity Radio Communication for the Polar Region: Challenges and Potential Solutions [Wireless Corner]. IEEE Antennas Propag Mag, 2012, 54: 238-244 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[109] Kvamstad B, Fjortoft K, Bekkadal F, et al. A case study from an emergency operation in the arctic seas. Int J Marine Navigation Safety Sea Transp, 2009, 3: 153--159. Google Scholar

[110] Klaes K D, Cohen M, Buhler Y. An Introduction to the EUMETSAT Polar system. Bull Am Meteorol Soc, 2007, 88: 1085-1096 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[111] Kato M. Nuclear Globalism: Traversing Rockets, Satellites, and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze. Alternatives, 1993, 18: 339-360 CrossRef Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    The framework of the AEHF system.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) A relationship between critical technologies and important features in protected SatCom systems.

  • Figure 3

    Schematic diagram of multiple spot beam in the protected SatCom systems.

  • Figure 4

    Technical contents related to intelligent control in the protected SatCom systems.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Practical application scenarios of the protected SatCom systems.

  • Table 1  

    Table 1Characteristics of different spread spectrum forms

    Category Common modulation mode Processing gain Spread bandwidth Suppression of jamming
    Frequency shift
    keying (FSK),
    minimum shift
    keying (MSK) [22]
    $N$ is hoppingnumber,
    $R_c$ is chip rate,
    $R_b$ is symbol rate.
    Narrowband jamming,
    Single-Tone jamming,
    Multi-Tone jamming [23].
    DSSS [24]
    Binary phase
    shift keying (BPSK),
    quadrature phase
    shift keying (QPSK)
    $R_c$ is chip rate,
    $R_b$ is symbol rate.
    Narrowband jamming,
    Single-Tone jamming,
    Multi-Tone jamming.
    THSS [24,25] BPSK, QPSK
    $1/D_c$, $D_c$ is duty
    cycle of transmitter
    operating time.
    Impulse jamming.
    CSS [26,27]
    Binary orthogonal
    keying (BOK), direct
    modulation (DM)
    $B_{\rm~ss}$ is instantaneous
    frequency variation
    range, $T_b$ is symbol
    Narrowband jamming,
    Single-Tone jamming,
    Multi-Tone jamming.
  • Table 2  

    Table 2Comparision of typical FEC coding methods

    Coding method Proposed year Classical decoding algorithm Coding gain Complexity
    Convolutional Codes [32] 1955 Viterbi algorithm [33] and BCJR algorithm [34] Low Low
    Turbo codes [35] 1993
    Log-map algorithm
    High High
    LDPC codes [36] 1960 Belief propagation Algorithm [37] High Middle
    Polar codes [38] 2008 Successive cancellation algorithm [38] High Low
  • Table 3  

    Table 3Comparison of several typical encryption algorithms

    DES [45] 3DES [46] AES [45] RSA [47,48] ECC [49]
    Developed 1970 1978 2001 1978 1985
    Key length (Bits) 64 (56 usable) 112, 168 128, 192, 256
    Usually greater
    than 1204, key
    length depends
    on number of bits
    in the module.
    Usually greater
    than 160, smaller
    but effective key.
    Block size (Bits) 64 64 18
    Variable block size
    Variable stream size
    Rounds 16 48 10, 12, 14 1 1
    Security level Low Middle High Middle High
    Encryption speed Slow Slow Fast Fast Most fast
    Attack methods
    Exclusive key
    search, linear
    Related key
    Key recovery
    attack, side
    channel attack.
    Brute force attack,
    Timing attack.
    Doubling attack
  • Table 4  

    Table 4Comparison of typical time domain adaptive filtering algorithms

    Adaptive filtering algorithm Accuracy Convergence speed Complexity (multiplier consumption)
    LMS [57,58] High Slow
    $2M^2$, $M$ is the number of taps
    RLS [59] High Fast $M(3M^2+5M)$
    NLMS [60,61] Low Fast $3M^2$
    BLMS [62] High Fast $10M\log_2{M}+26M$

Contact and support