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SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 6 : 161301(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-2928-9

An overview of protected satellite communications in intelligent age

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  • ReceivedOct 30, 2019
  • AcceptedMay 25, 2020
  • PublishedMay 10, 2021

Abstract


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1836201).


References

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  • Figure 1

    The framework of the AEHF system.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) A relationship between critical technologies and important features in protected SatCom systems.

  • Figure 3

    Schematic diagram of multiple spot beam in the protected SatCom systems.

  • Figure 4

    Technical contents related to intelligent control in the protected SatCom systems.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Practical application scenarios of the protected SatCom systems.

  • Table 1  

    Table 1Characteristics of different spread spectrum forms

    Category Common modulation mode Processing gain Spread bandwidth Suppression of jamming
    FHSS
    Frequency shift
    keying (FSK),
    minimum shift
    keying (MSK) [22]
    $N~\times~R_c/R_b$,
    $N$ is hoppingnumber,
    $R_c$ is chip rate,
    $R_b$ is symbol rate.
    $B\varpropto~R_c~\times~N$
    Narrowband jamming,
    Single-Tone jamming,
    Multi-Tone jamming [23].
    DSSS [24]
    Binary phase
    shift keying (BPSK),
    quadrature phase
    shift keying (QPSK)
    $R_c/R_b$,
    $R_c$ is chip rate,
    $R_b$ is symbol rate.
    $B\varpropto~R_c$
    Narrowband jamming,
    Single-Tone jamming,
    Multi-Tone jamming.
    THSS [24,25] BPSK, QPSK
    $1/D_c$, $D_c$ is duty
    cycle of transmitter
    operating time.
    $B\varpropto~R_b$
    Impulse jamming.
    CSS [26,27]
    Binary orthogonal
    keying (BOK), direct
    modulation (DM)
    $T_b~\times~B_{\rm~ss}$,
    $B_{\rm~ss}$ is instantaneous
    frequency variation
    range, $T_b$ is symbol
    duration.
    $B\varpropto~B_{\rm~ss}$
    Narrowband jamming,
    Single-Tone jamming,
    Multi-Tone jamming.
  • Table 2  

    Table 2Comparision of typical FEC coding methods

    Coding method Proposed year Classical decoding algorithm Coding gain Complexity
    Convolutional Codes [32] 1955 Viterbi algorithm [33] and BCJR algorithm [34] Low Low
    Turbo codes [35] 1993
    Log-map algorithm
    High High
    LDPC codes [36] 1960 Belief propagation Algorithm [37] High Middle
    Polar codes [38] 2008 Successive cancellation algorithm [38] High Low
  • Table 3  

    Table 3Comparison of several typical encryption algorithms

    DES [45] 3DES [46] AES [45] RSA [47,48] ECC [49]
    Developed 1970 1978 2001 1978 1985
    Key length (Bits) 64 (56 usable) 112, 168 128, 192, 256
    Usually greater
    than 1204, key
    length depends
    on number of bits
    in the module.
    Usually greater
    than 160, smaller
    but effective key.
    Block size (Bits) 64 64 18
    Variable block size
    Variable stream size
    Rounds 16 48 10, 12, 14 1 1
    Security level Low Middle High Middle High
    Encryption speed Slow Slow Fast Fast Most fast
    Attack methods
    found
    Exclusive key
    search, linear
    cryptanalysis,
    differential
    analysis.
    Related key
    attack
    Key recovery
    attack, side
    channel attack.
    Brute force attack,
    Timing attack.
    Doubling attack
  • Table 4  

    Table 4Comparison of typical time domain adaptive filtering algorithms

    Adaptive filtering algorithm Accuracy Convergence speed Complexity (multiplier consumption)
    LMS [57,58] High Slow
    $2M^2$, $M$ is the number of taps
    RLS [59] High Fast $M(3M^2+5M)$
    NLMS [60,61] Low Fast $3M^2$
    BLMS [62] High Fast $10M\log_2{M}+26M$
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