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SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 12 : 220403(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-2676-x

All-carbon hybrids for high-performance electronics, optoelectronics and energy storage

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  • ReceivedAug 26, 2019
  • AcceptedOct 14, 2019
  • PublishedNov 11, 2019

Abstract


Acknowledgment

This work was supported in part by National Key R D Program of China (Grant Nos. 2018YFB22-00500, 2017YFA0206304), National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB921101), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61775093, 61427812), National Youth 1000-Talent Plan, `Jiangsu Shuangchuang Team' Program, and Jiangsu NSF (Grant No. BK20170012).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic of the electronic, opto-electronic devices and supercapacitors based on graphene/CNTs all-carbon materials. The main examples of the representative architecture and their main features are exhibited.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) The structures of carbon nanotube and graphene. (a) The carbon atoms of graphene in a honeycomb lattice. A nanotube formed by rolling a strip of graphene along the chiral vector ($C_{h})$ [4]@Copyright 2007 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (b) Bandgaps versus nanotube radius for several selected families CNTs with different chiral [n,~m] [18]@Copyright 2005 ACS. The electronic DOS for selected metallic (c) and semiconducting (d) nanotubes [30]@Copyright 2011, ACS. (e) The linear energy dispersion of graphene in the honeycomb lattice [3]@Copyright 2009 APS.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Growth separation and transfer of carbon nanotubes and graphene. (a) The typical SEM image of horizontally CNTs [34]@Copyright 2001 AIP. (b) The centrifuge tube loaded with as-received nanotubes with different diameters [35]@Copyright 2009 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (c) Unzipping diagram from a carbon nanotube to a nanoribbon. Inset: a TEM image of formed nanoribbon [36]@Copyright 2009 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (d) Graphene transferred from the Pt foil to a SiO$_{2}$ chip [37]@Copyright 2012 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (e) Photograph of fast growth graphene transferred on the wafer [38]@Copyright 2016 Wiley. (f) Schematics of graphene growth by local fluorine. (g) SEM image of graphene domains growing at $\Delta~t$=5 s [39]@Copyright 2019 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Configuration models and fabrications of all-carbon hybrids. (a) Hybrids of graphene with horizontal CNTs and the typical synthesis process [69]@Copyright 2012 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (b) Hybrids of graphene with vertical CNTs and the typical synthesis process [70] @Copyright 2014 ACS. (c) TEM and schematic of the vein-membrane-like hybrid [71]@Copyright 2013 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (d) TEM image of interconnected SWCNT networks in rebar graphene sheets [70]@Copyright 2014 ACS. (e) Hybrid paper macroscopic appearance after thermal reduction [72] @Copyright 2013 ACS. (f) SEM of nanotube carpet [69]@Copyright 2012 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (g) and (h) SEM images of the cross-section of all-carbon hybrid microfibers [73]@Copyright 2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) All-carbon hybrids for electronic devices. (a) Transparent electrodes based on graphene/CNTs hybrid films compared with ITO films [113] @Copyright 2009 ACS. (b) The sheet resistances distribution of graphene/CNTs hybrids measured along parallel ($\vert~\vert~)$ and perpendicular ($~\bot )$ to CNT array. (c) Optical transmittance spectra of the flat electrochromic device [116]@Copyright 2015 Wiley. (d) Hysteresis of the device using graphene gate electrode [117]@Copyright 2011 ACS. (e) Current change of on/off states versus the duration time of gate pulse [118]@Copyright 2011 Wiley. (f) Output characteristics of an inverter [117]@Copyright 2011 ACS. (g) The current variations to the acoustic vibrations from different words [119]@Copyright 2017 Wiley. (h) Field emission current density as a function of applied field of graphene/CNTs hybrids with different CNT densities [120]@Copyright 2012 RSC. (i) Photograph of a field-emitting device [121]@Copyright 2010 Wiley.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) All-carbon hybrids for optoelectronic devices. (a) Comparison of transport characteristics between graphene and metal CNT (m-CNT) and semiconducting CNT (s-CNT) [143]@Copyright 2011 AIP. (b) External quantum efficiency of all-carbon photodetector under 650 nm illumination. Inset shows the responsivities versus optical power of different illumination wavelengths [124]@Copyright 2015 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (c) Images of folded photodetector and its photoresponse under a high strain of over 50%[144]Copyright 2017 Wiley. (d) Power conversion efficiency of the different solar cells [145]@Copyright 2015 IOP. (e) Electroluminescence (EL) spectra with the current in LED [146]@Copyright 2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (f) Schematic illustrations of the synapse based on graphene/SWNT hybrids. (g) The change of PSC amplitudes triggered by a presynaptic light spike Insets: the typical IPSC and EPSC changes triggered by the light spike [147]@Copyright 2017 IOP. (h) Image of the integrated array based on graphene/C$_{60}$ all-carbon hybrids. (i) The corresponding spatial-light mapping for the devices [148]@Copyright 2019 ACS.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) All-carbon hybrids with different dimensionalities for energy storages. (a) Illustration of 2D graphene/CNTs hybrids via self-assembly process [168]@Copyright 2009 ACS. (b) Cycling performance of all-carbon composite electrode [165]@Copyright 2011 RSC. (c) Vertical CNTs pillar height versus the nanotube deposition time. Inset is a SEM image of thermally expanded graphene layers intercalated with CNTs [170]@Copyright 2011 ACS. (d) The density, surface area of hybrid fibers as a function of SWNT fraction. Inset show a photograph of the as-prepared fibers collected in water. (e) Schematic of a self-powered nanosystem. Inset: SEM of an aligned TiO$_{2}$ nanorod array [73]@Copyright 2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (f) Cyclic performance and high-rate capability of the vertically aligned CNT/graphene film in a lithium-ion battery [171]@Copyright 2011 Wiley. (g) Schematics of 3D graphene/CNT-Ni nanostructure as an anode material during the charging and discharging processes in lithium-ion batteries [172]@Copyright 2013 IOP.

  • Table 1   Comparison of technical features of all-carbon hybrids forelectronics, optoelectronics and energy storages
    Architecture Electronics Optoelectronics Energy storages
    Individual CNT High carrier mobility and Limited response time and High electrical
    small on/off ratio for responsivity from UV conductivity but tends
    metallic CNTs; to NIR to stack into bundles
    Larger on/off ratio and
    limited carrier mobility
    for semiconducting CNTs
    Individual graphene High carrier mobility but Ultrafast photoresponse High surface area,
    small on/off ratio (GHz) but limited chemically stable but
    responsivity from easily forms irreversible
    UV to THz agglomerates
    2D planar CNT/graphene High carrier mobility and Strong light absorption Well suited for
    limited on/off ratio and high carrier mobility; optoelectronics such
    due to graphene efficient exciton separation as photodetectors
    at interface; fast
    response time and
    high photoresponsivity
    3D vertical CNT/graphene Well suited for energy Strong light absorption High surface-to-volume
    storages such as and high carrier ratio; abundant mesoporosity
    Li-ion batteries mobility; improved and activation sites
    photoresponsivity