SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 12 : 220403(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-2676-x

All-carbon hybrids for high-performance electronics, optoelectronics and energy storage

More info
  • ReceivedAug 26, 2019
  • AcceptedOct 14, 2019
  • PublishedNov 11, 2019



This work was supported in part by National Key R D Program of China (Grant Nos. 2018YFB22-00500, 2017YFA0206304), National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB921101), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61775093, 61427812), National Youth 1000-Talent Plan, `Jiangsu Shuangchuang Team' Program, and Jiangsu NSF (Grant No. BK20170012).


[1] Novoselov K S. Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films. Science, 2004, 306: 666-669 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[2] Jariwala D, Sangwan V K, Lauhon L J. Carbon nanomaterials for electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and sensing.. Chem Soc Rev, 2013, 42: 2824-2860 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[3] Castro Neto A H, Guinea F, Peres N M R. The electronic properties of graphene. Rev Mod Phys, 2009, 81: 109-162 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[4] Avouris P, Chen Z, Perebeinos V. Carbon-based electronics. Nat Nanotech, 2007, 2: 605-615 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[5] Bonaccorso F, Sun Z, Hasan T. Graphene photonics and optoelectronics. Nat Photon, 2010, 4: 611-622 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[6] Zhang Y, Tan Y W, Stormer H L. Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene. Nature, 2005, 438: 201-204 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[7] Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V. Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene. Nature, 2005, 438: 197-200 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[8] Kim K S, Zhao Y, Jang H. Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes. Nature, 2009, 457: 706-710 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[9] Liao L, Lin Y C, Bao M Q. High-speed graphene transistors with a self-aligned nanowire gate. Nature, 2010, 467: 305-308 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[10] Yang H, Heo J, Park S. Graphene Barristor, a Triode Device with a Gate-Controlled Schottky Barrier. Science, 2012, 336: 1140-1143 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[11] Lin Y M, Valdes-Garcia A, Han S J. Wafer-Scale Graphene Integrated Circuit. Science, 2011, 332: 1294-1297 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[12] Liu M, Yin X B, Ulin-Avila E. A graphene-based broadband optical modulator. Nature, 2011, 474: 64-67 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[13] Ansell D, Radko I P, Han Z. Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators. Nat Commun, 2015, 6: 8846 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[14] Liu C H, Chang Y C, Norris T B. Graphene photodetectors with ultra-broadband and high responsivity at room temperature. Nat Nanotech, 2014, 9: 273-278 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[15] Baugher B W H, Churchill H O H, Yang Y. Optoelectronic devices based on electrically tunable p-n diodes in a monolayer dichalcogenide. Nat Nanotech, 2014, 9: 262-267 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[16] Pospischil A, Furchi M M, Mueller T. Solar-energy conversion and light emission in an atomic monolayer p-n diode. Nat Nanotech, 2014, 9: 257-261 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[17] Koppens F H L, Chang D E, Garci?a de Abajo F J. Graphene Plasmonics: A Platform for Strong Light-Matter Interactions. Nano Lett, 2011, 11: 3370-3377 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[18] Low T, Avouris P. Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications.. ACS Nano, 2014, 8: 1086-1101 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[19] Sun Z P, Hasan T, Torrisi F. Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser.. ACS Nano, 2010, 4: 803-810 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[20] Konstantatos G, Badioli M, Gaudreau L. Hybrid graphene-quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain. Nat Nanotech, 2012, 7: 363-368 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[21] Franklin A D, Chen Z. Length scaling of carbon nanotube transistors. Nat Nanotech, 2010, 5: 858-862 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[22] Cao Q, Han S J, Tulevski G S. Arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes with full surface coverage for high-performance electronics. Nat Nanotech, 2013, 8: 180-186 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[23] Itkis M E, Borondics F, Yu A. Bolometric Infrared Photoresponse of Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films. Science, 2006, 312: 413-416 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[24] Geier M L, Prabhumirashi P L, McMorrow J J. Subnanowatt Carbon Nanotube Complementary Logic Enabled by Threshold Voltage Control. Nano Lett, 2013, 13: 4810-4814 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[25] Park H, Afzali A, Han S J. High-density integration of carbon nanotubes via chemical self-assembly. Nat Nanotech, 2012, 7: 787-791 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[26] Liu H P, Nishide D, Tanaka T. Large-scale single-chirality separation of single-wall carbon nanotubes by simple gel chromatography. Nat Commun, 2011, 2: 309 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[27] Zhu H W, Xu C L, Wu D H. Direct Synthesis of Long Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Strands. Science, 2002, 296: 884-886 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[28] Charlier J C, Blase X, Roche S. Electronic and transport properties of nanotubes. Rev Mod Phys, 2007, 79: 677-732 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[29] Mintmire J W, White C T. Universal Density of States for Carbon Nanotubes. Phys Rev Lett, 1998, 81: 2506-2509 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[30] Wong H S P, Akinwande D. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Device Physics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. Google Scholar

[31] Barone P W, Baik S, Heller D A. Near-infrared optical sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Nat Mater, 2004, 4: 86-92 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[32] Bahk Y M, Ramakrishnan G, Choi J. Plasmon enhanced terahertz emission from single layer graphene.. ACS Nano, 2014, 8: 9089-9096 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[33] Behnam A, Sangwan V K, Zhong X. High-field transport and thermal reliability of sorted carbon nanotube network devices.. ACS Nano, 2013, 7: 482-490 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[34] Iijima S. Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature, 1991, 354: 56-58 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[35] Ebbesen T W, Ajayan P M. Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Nature, 1992, 358: 220-222 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[36] Iijima S, Ichihashi T. Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter. Nature, 1993, 363: 603-605 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[37] Thess A, Lee R, Nikolaev P. Crystalline Ropes of Metallic Carbon Nanotubes. Science, 1996, 273: 483-487 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[38] Guo T, Nikolaev P, Rinzler A G. Self-Assembly of Tubular Fullerenes. J Phys Chem, 1995, 99: 10694-10697 CrossRef Google Scholar

[39] Guo T, Nikolaev P, Thess A. Catalytic growth of single-walled manotubes by laser vaporization. Chem Phys Lett, 1995, 243: 49-54 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[40] Li W Z, Xie S S, Qian L X. Large-Scale Synthesis of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes. Science, 1996, 274: 1701-1703 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[41] Hata K. Water-Assisted Highly Efficient Synthesis of Impurity-Free Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Science, 2004, 306: 1362-1364 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[42] Zhang Y G, Chang A, Cao J. Electric-field-directed growth of aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. Appl Phys Lett, 2001, 79: 3155-3157 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[43] Arnold M S, Green A A, Hulvat J F. Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation. Nat Nanotech, 2006, 1: 60-65 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[44] Arnold M S, Stupp S I, Hersam M C. Enrichment of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Diameter in Density Gradients. Nano Lett, 2005, 5: 713-718 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[45] Green A A, Hersam M C. Properties and application of double-walled carbon nanotubes sorted by outer-wall electronic type.. ACS Nano, 2011, 5: 1459-1467 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[46] Green A A, Hersam M C. Processing and properties of highly enriched double-wall carbon nanotubes. Nat Nanotech, 2009, 4: 64-70 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[47] Green A A, Hersam M C. Nearly single-chirality single-walled carbon nanotubes produced via orthogonal iterative density gradient ultracentrifugation.. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 2185-2190 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[48] Antaris A L, Seo J W T, Green A A. Sorting single-walled carbon nanotubes by electronic type using nonionic, biocompatible block copolymers.. ACS Nano, 2010, 4: 4725-4732 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[49] Yang F, Wang X, Zhang D. Chirality-specific growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on solid alloy catalysts. Nature, 2014, 510: 522-524 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[50] Yang F, Wang X, Si J. Water-Assisted Preparation of High-Purity Semiconducting (14,4) Carbon Nanotubes. ACS Nano, 2017, 11: 186-193 CrossRef Google Scholar

[51] Wang J T, Jin X, Liu Z B. Growing highly pure semiconducting carbon nanotubes by electrotwisting the helicity. Nat Catal, 2018, 1: 326-331 CrossRef Google Scholar

[52] Hernandez Y, Nicolosi V, Lotya M. High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. Nat Nanotech, 2008, 3: 563-568 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[53] Liu N, Luo F, Wu H X. One-Step Ionic-Liquid-Assisted Electrochemical Synthesis of Ionic-Liquid-Functionalized Graphene Sheets Directly from Graphite. Adv Funct Mater, 2008, 18: 1518-1525 CrossRef Google Scholar

[54] Kosynkin D V, Higginbotham A L, Sinitskii A. Longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes to form graphene nanoribbons. Nature, 2009, 458: 872-876 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[55] Jiao L Y, Zhang L, Wang X R. Narrow graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes. Nature, 2009, 458: 877-880 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[56] Terrones M, Botello-Méndez A R, Campos-Delgado J. Graphene and graphite nanoribbons: Morphology, properties, synthesis, defects and applications. Nano Today, 2010, 5: 351-372 CrossRef Google Scholar

[57] Yan Q M, Huang B, Yu J. Intrinsic Current-Voltage Characteristics of Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors and Effect of Edge Doping. Nano Lett, 2007, 7: 1469-1473 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[58] Emtsev K V, Bostwick A, Horn K. Towards wafer-size graphene layers by atmospheric pressure graphitization of silicon carbide. Nat Mater, 2009, 8: 203-207 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[59] de Heer W A, Berger C, Ruan M. Large area and structured epitaxial graphene produced by confinement controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2011, 108: 16900-16905 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[60] Somani P R, Somani S P, Umeno M. Planer nano-graphenes from camphor by CVD. Chem Phys Lett, 2006, 430: 56-59 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[61] Li X S, Cai W W, An J. Large-Area Synthesis of High-Quality and Uniform Graphene Films on Copper Foils. Science, 2009, 324: 1312-1314 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[62] Lee S, Lee K, Zhong Z H. Wafer Scale Homogeneous Bilayer Graphene Films by Chemical Vapor Deposition. Nano Lett, 2010, 10: 4702-4707 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[63] Gao L B, Ren W C, Xu H L. Repeated growth and bubbling transfer of graphene with millimetre-size single-crystal grains using platinum. Nat Commun, 2012, 3: 699 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[64] Bae S, Kim H, Lee Y. Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nat Nanotech, 2010, 5: 574-578 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[65] Pei S, Cheng H M. The reduction of graphene oxide. Carbon, 2012, 50: 3210-3228 CrossRef Google Scholar

[66] Wang H, Xu X Z, Li J Y. Surface Monocrystallization of Copper Foil for Fast Growth of Large Single-Crystal Graphene under Free Molecular Flow.. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 8968-8974 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[67] Liu C, Xu X Z, Qiu L. Kinetic modulation of graphene growth by fluorine through spatially confined decomposition of metal fluorides.. Nat Chem, 2019, 11: 730-736 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[68] Xu X Z, Zhang Z H, Dong J C. Ultrafast epitaxial growth of metre-sized single-crystal graphene on industrial Cu foil. Sci Bull, 2017, 62: 1074-1080 CrossRef Google Scholar

[69] Yan Z, Peng Z W, Casillas G. Rebar graphene.. ACS Nano, 2014, 8: 5061-5068 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[70] Novaes F D, Rurali R, Ordejón P. Electronic transport between graphene layers covalently connected by carbon nanotubes.. ACS Nano, 2010, 4: 7596-7602 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[71] Varshney V, Patnaik S S, Roy A K. Modeling of thermal transport in pillared-graphene architectures.. ACS Nano, 2010, 4: 1153-1161 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[72] Lin X Y, Liu P, Wei Y. Development of an ultra-thin film comprised of a graphene membrane and carbon nanotube vein support. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 2920 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[73] Cohen-Tanugi D, Grossman J C. Water Desalination across Nanoporous Graphene. Nano Lett, 2012, 12: 3602-3608 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[74] Hong T K, Lee D W, Choi H J. Transparent, flexible conducting hybrid multilayer thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with graphene nanosheets.. ACS Nano, 2010, 4: 3861-3868 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[75] Tristán-López F, Morelos-Gómez A, Vega-Díaz S M. Large area films of alternating graphene-carbon nanotube layers processed in water.. ACS Nano, 2013, 7: 10788-10798 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[76] Fan Z J, Yan J, Zhi L J. A three-dimensional carbon nanotube/graphene sandwich and its application as electrode in supercapacitors.. Adv Mater, 2010, 22: 3723-3728 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[77] Zhu Y, Li L, Zhang C G. A seamless three-dimensional carbon nanotube graphene hybrid material. Nat Commun, 2012, 3: 1225 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[78] Yu D S, Goh K, Wang H. Scalable synthesis of hierarchically structured carbon nanotube-graphene fibres for capacitive energy storage. Nat Nanotech, 2014, 9: 555-562 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[79] Ando T, Nakanishi T. Impurity Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes Absence of Back Scattering. J Phys Soc Jpn, 1998, 67: 1704-1713 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[80] Bolotin K I, Sikes K J, Jiang Z. Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene. Solid State Commun, 2008, 146: 351-355 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[81] Gusynin V P, Sharapov S G. Unconventional Integer Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene. Phys Rev Lett, 2005, 95: 146801 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[82] Tworzyd?o J, Trauzettel B, Titov M. Sub-Poissonian Shot Noise in Graphene. Phys Rev Lett, 2006, 96: 246802 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[83] Ziegler K. Robust Transport Properties in Graphene. Phys Rev Lett, 2006, 97: 266802 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[84] Han M Y, ?zyilmaz B, Zhang Y. Energy Band-Gap Engineering of Graphene Nanoribbons. Phys Rev Lett, 2007, 98: 206805 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[85] Berger C. Electronic Confinement and Coherence in Patterned Epitaxial Graphene. Science, 2006, 312: 1191-1196 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[86] Schwierz F. Graphene transistors. Nat Nanotech, 2010, 5: 487-496 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[87] Geim A K, Novoselov K S. The rise of graphene. Nat Mater, 2007, 6: 183-191 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[88] Berger C, Song Z, Li T. Ultrathin Epitaxial Graphite: 2D Electron Gas Properties and a Route toward Graphene-based Nanoelectronics. J Phys Chem B, 2004, 108: 19912-19916 CrossRef Google Scholar

[89] Lin Y M, Dimitrakopoulos C, Jenkins K A. 100-GHz Transistors from Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Graphene. Science, 2010, 327: 662-662 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[90] Wu Y Q, Lin Y M, Bol A A. High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon. Nature, 2011, 472: 74-78 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[91] Sire C, Ardiaca F, Lepilliet S. Flexible Gigahertz Transistors Derived from Solution-Based Single-Layer Graphene. Nano Lett, 2012, 12: 1184-1188 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[92] Kim B J, Lee S K, Kang M S. Coplanar-gate transparent graphene transistors and inverters on plastic.. ACS Nano, 2012, 6: 8646-8651 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[93] Li S L, Miyazaki H, Kumatani A. Low Operating Bias and Matched Input-Output Characteristics in Graphene Logic Inverters. Nano Lett, 2010, 10: 2357-2362 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[94] Dürkop T, Getty S A, Cobas E. Extraordinary Mobility in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes. Nano Lett, 2004, 4: 35-39 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[95] Bachtold A. Logic Circuits with Carbon Nanotube Transistors. Science, 2001, 294: 1317-1320 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[96] Sun D M, Timmermans M Y, Tian Y. Flexible high-performance carbon nanotube integrated circuits. Nat Nanotech, 2011, 6: 156-161 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[97] Sun D M, Timmermans M Y, Kaskela A. Mouldable all-carbon integrated circuits. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 2302 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[98] Derycke V, Martel R, Appenzeller J. Carbon Nanotube Inter- and Intramolecular Logic Gates. Nano Lett, 2001, 1: 453-456 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[99] Franklin A D, Luisier M, Han S J. Sub-10 nm Carbon Nanotube Transistor. Nano Lett, 2012, 12: 758-762 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[100] Dong X C, Fu D L, Fang W J. Doping single-layer graphene with aromatic molecules.. Small, 2009, 5: 1422-1426 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[101] Liu Y, Jin Z, Wang J Y. Nitrogen-Doped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Substrates: Evidence for Framework Doping and Their Enhanced Properties. Adv Funct Mater, 2011, 21: 986-992 CrossRef Google Scholar

[102] Lv R T, Cui T X, Jun M S. Open-Ended, N-Doped Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructures as High-Performance Catalyst Support. Adv Funct Mater, 2011, 21: 999-1006 CrossRef Google Scholar

[103] Lin Y M, Appenzeller J, Knoch J. High-Performance Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor With Tunable Polarities. IEEE Trans Nanotechnol, 2005, 4: 481-489 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[104] Yu W J, Kang B R, Lee I H. Majority carrier type conversion with floating gates in carbon nanotube transistors.. Adv Mater, 2009, 21: 4821-4824 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[105] Nosho Y, Ohno Y, Kishimoto S. Relation between conduction property and work function of contact metal in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. Nanotechnology, 2006, 17: 3412-3415 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[106] Yamamoto K, Kamimura T, Matsumoto K. Nitrogen Doping of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube by Using Mass-Separated Low-Energy Ion Beams. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2005, 44: 1611-1614 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[107] Moriyama N, Ohno Y, Kitamura T. Change in carrier type in high-k gate carbon nanotube field-effect transistors by interface fixed charges. Nanotechnology, 2010, 21: 165201 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[108] Liu W, Song M S, Kong B. Flexible and Stretchable Energy Storage: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.. Adv Mater, 2017, 29: 1603436 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[109] Khang D Y. A Stretchable Form of Single-Crystal Silicon for High-Performance Electronics on Rubber Substrates. Science, 2006, 311: 208-212 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[110] Huang J H, Fang J H, Liu C C. Effective work function modulation of graphene/carbon nanotube composite films as transparent cathodes for organic optoelectronics.. ACS Nano, 2011, 5: 6262-6271 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[111] Cao Q, Hur S H, Zhu Z T. Highly Bendable, Transparent Thin-Film Transistors That Use Carbon-Nanotube-Based Conductors and Semiconductors with Elastomeric Dielectrics. Adv Mater, 2006, 18: 304-309 CrossRef Google Scholar

[112] Aikawa S, Einarsson E, Thurakitseree T. Deformable transparent all-carbon-nanotube transistors. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 100: 063502 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[113] Tung V C, Chen L M, Allen M J. Low-Temperature Solution Processing of Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Materials for High-Performance Transparent Conductors. Nano Lett, 2009, 9: 1949-1955 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[114] Lu R T, Christianson C, Weintrub B. High photoresponse in hybrid graphene-carbon nanotube infrared detectors.. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2013, 5: 11703-11707 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[115] Kim S H, Song W, Jung M W. Carbon nanotube and graphene hybrid thin film for transparent electrodes and field effect transistors.. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 4247-4252 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[116] Peng L W, Feng Y Y, Lv P. Transparent, Conductive, and Flexible Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Graphene Hybrid Electrodes with Two Three-Dimensional Microstructures. J Phys Chem C, 2012, 116: 4970-4978 CrossRef Google Scholar

[117] Liu Y J, Liu Y D, Qin S C. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid films for high-performance flexible photodetectors. Nano Res, 2017, 10: 1880-1887 CrossRef Google Scholar

[118] Liu Y D, Wang F Q, Wang X M. Planar carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid films for high-performance broadband photodetectors. Nat Commun, 2015, 6: 8589 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[119] Jang S, Jang H, Lee Y. Flexible, transparent single-walled carbon nanotube transistors with graphene electrodes. Nanotechnology, 2010, 21: 425201 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[120] Liu Y D, Wang F Q, Liu Y J. Charge transfer at carbon nanotube-graphene van der Waals heterojunctions. Nanoscale, 2016, 8: 12883-12886 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[121] Kholmanov I N, Magnuson C W, Piner R. Optical, electrical, and electromechanical properties of hybrid graphene/carbon nanotube films.. Adv Mater, 2015, 27: 3053-3059 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[122] Yu W J, Lee S Y, Chae S H. Small Hysteresis Nanocarbon-Based Integrated Circuits on Flexible and Transparent Plastic Substrate. Nano Lett, 2011, 11: 1344-1350 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[123] Yu W J, Chae S H, Lee S Y. Ultra-transparent, flexible single-walled carbon nanotube non-volatile memory device with an oxygen-decorated graphene electrode.. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 1889-1893 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[124] Jung S, Kim J H, Kim J. Reverse-micelle-induced porous pressure-sensitive rubber for wearable human-machine interfaces.. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 4825-4830 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[125] Wang X W, Gu Y, Xiong Z P. Silk-molded flexible, ultrasensitive, and highly stable electronic skin for monitoring human physiological signals.. Adv Mater, 2014, 26: 1336-1342 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[126] Park J, Lee Y, Hong J. Giant tunneling piezoresistance of composite elastomers with interlocked microdome arrays for ultrasensitive and multimodal electronic skins.. ACS Nano, 2014, 8: 4689-4697 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[127] Yeom C, Chen K, Kiriya D. Large-area compliant tactile sensors using printed carbon nanotube active-matrix backplanes.. Adv Mater, 2015, 27: 1561-1566 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[128] Zhu B W, Niu Z Q, Wang H. Microstructured graphene arrays for highly sensitive flexible tactile sensors.. Small, 2014, 10: 3625-3631 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[129] Bae G Y, Pak S W, Kim D. Linearly and Highly Pressure-Sensitive Electronic Skin Based on a Bioinspired Hierarchical Structural Array.. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 5300-5306 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[130] Sheng L Z, Liang Y, Jiang L L. Bubble-Decorated Honeycomb-Like Graphene Film as Ultrahigh Sensitivity Pressure Sensors. Adv Funct Mater, 2015, 25: 6545-6551 CrossRef Google Scholar

[131] Yao H B, Ge J, Wang C F. A flexible and highly pressure-sensitive graphene-polyurethane sponge based on fractured microstructure design.. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 6692-6698 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[132] Jian M Q, Xia K L, Wang Q. Flexible and Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensors Based on Bionic Hierarchical Structures. Adv Funct Mater, 2017, 27: 1606066 CrossRef Google Scholar

[133] Li J H, Li W X, Huang W P. Fabrication of highly reinforced and compressible graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid foams via a facile self-assembly process for application as strain sensors and beyond. J Mater Chem C, 2017, 5: 2723-2730 CrossRef Google Scholar

[134] Kim K H, Oh Y, Islam M F. Graphene coating makes carbon nanotube aerogels superelastic and resistant to fatigue. Nat Nanotech, 2012, 7: 562-566 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[135] Sun H Y, Xu Z, Gao C. Multifunctional, ultra-flyweight, synergistically assembled carbon aerogels.. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 2554-2560 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[136] Li X L, Sha J W, Lee S K. Rivet Graphene. ACS Nano, 2016, 10: 7307-7313 CrossRef Google Scholar

[137] Nguyen D D, Tai N H, Chen S Y. Controlled growth of carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid materials for flexible and transparent conductors and electron field emitters. Nanoscale, 2012, 4: 632-638 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[138] Lee D H, Kim J E, Han T H. Versatile carbon hybrid films composed of vertical carbon nanotubes grown on mechanically compliant graphene films.. Adv Mater, 2010, 22: 1247-1252 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[139] Lyth S M, Silva S R P. Field emission from multiwall carbon nanotubes on paper substrates. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90: 173124 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[140] Mani V, Devadas B, Chen S M. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase at electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotubes hybrid material modified electrode for glucose biosensor.. Biosens Bioelectron, 2013, 41: 309-315 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[141] Liu F, Piao Y X, Choi K S. Fabrication of free-standing graphene composite films as electrochemical biosensors. Carbon, 2012, 50: 123-133 CrossRef Google Scholar

[142] Chen H, Qian W Z, Xie Q. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrids as robust, rapid, reversible adsorbents for organics. Carbon, 2017, 116: 409-414 CrossRef Google Scholar

[143] Gabor N M, Zhong Z H, Bosnick K. Extremely Efficient Multiple Electron-Hole Pair Generation in Carbon Nanotube Photodiodes. Science, 2009, 325: 1367-1371 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[144] Echtermeyer T J, Britnell L, Jasnos P K. Strong plasmonic enhancement of photovoltage in graphene. Nat Commun, 2011, 2: 458 CrossRef PubMed ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[145] Liu Y, Cheng R, Liao L. Plasmon resonance enhanced multicolour photodetection by graphene. Nat Commun, 2011, 2: 579 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[146] Lu R T, Shi J J, Baca F J. High performance multiwall carbon nanotube bolometers. J Appl Phys, 2010, 108: 084305 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[147] He X W, Léonard F, Kono J. Uncooled Carbon Nanotube Photodetectors. Adv Opt Mater, 2015, 3: 989-1011 CrossRef Google Scholar

[148] Pei T, Xu H T, Zhang Z Y. Electronic transport in single-walled carbon nanotube/graphene junction. Appl Phys Lett, 2011, 99: 113102 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[149] Pyo S, Kim W, Jung H I. Heterogeneous Integration of Carbon-Nanotube-Graphene for High-Performance, Flexible, and Transparent Photodetectors.. Small, 2017, 13: 1700918 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[150] Velten J, Mozer A J, Li D. Carbon nanotube/graphene nanocomposite as efficient counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanotechnology, 2012, 23: 085201 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[151] Choi H, Kim H, Hwang S. Dye-sensitized solar cells using graphene-based carbon nano composite as counter electrode. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2011, 95: 323-325 CrossRef Google Scholar

[152] Gan X, Lv R, Bai J. Efficient photovoltaic conversion of graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid films grown from solid precursors. 2D Mater, 2015, 2: 034003 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[153] Chung K, Lee C H, Yi G C. Transferable GaN Layers Grown on ZnO-Coated Graphene Layers for Optoelectronic Devices. Science, 2010, 330: 655-657 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[154] Yoo H, Chung K, Choi Y S. Microstructures of GaN thin films grown on graphene layers.. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 515-518 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[155] Han N, Viet Cuong T, Han M. Improved heat dissipation in gallium nitride light-emitting diodes with embedded graphene oxide pattern. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 1452 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[156] Lee C H, Kim Y J, Hong Y J. Flexible inorganic nanostructure light-emitting diodes fabricated on graphene films.. Adv Mater, 2011, 23: 4614-4619 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[157] Seo T H, Park A H, Park S. Direct growth of GaN layer on carbon nanotube-graphene hybrid structure and its application for light emitting diodes. Sci Rep, 2015, 5: 7747 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[158] Qin S C, Wang F Q, Liu Y J. A light-stimulated synaptic device based on graphene hybrid phototransistor. 2D Mater, 2017, 4: 035022 CrossRef ADS arXiv Google Scholar

[159] Lee M, Lee W, Choi S. Brain-Inspired Photonic Neuromorphic Devices using Photodynamic Amorphous Oxide Semiconductors and their Persistent Photoconductivity.. Adv Mater, 2017, 29: 1700951 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[160] Dai S L, Wu X H, Liu D P. Light-Stimulated Synaptic Devices Utilizing Interfacial Effect of Organic Field-Effect Transistors. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10: 21472-21480 CrossRef Google Scholar

[161] Qin S C, Chen X Q, Du Q Q. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10: 38326-38333 CrossRef Google Scholar

[162] Qin S C, Jiang H Z, Du Q Q. Planar graphene-C60-graphene heterostructures for sensitive UV-Visible photodetection. Carbon, 2019, 146: 486-490 CrossRef Google Scholar

[163] Jnawali G, Rao Y, Beck J H. ACS Nano, 2015, 9: 7175-7185 CrossRef Google Scholar

[164] Ojeda-Aristizabal C, Santos E J G, Onishi S. ACS Nano, 2017, 11: 4686-4693 CrossRef Google Scholar

[165] Cheng Q, Tang J, Ma J. Graphene and carbon nanotube composite electrodes for supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2011, 13: 17615 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[166] Izadi-Najafabadi A, Yasuda S, Kobashi K. Extracting the full potential of single-walled carbon nanotubes as durable supercapacitor electrodes operable at 4 V with high power and energy density.. Adv Mater, 2010, 22: E235-E241 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[167] Zhang D S, Yan T T, Shi L Y. Enhanced capacitive deionization performance of graphene/carbon nanotube composites. J Mater Chem, 2012, 22: 14696 CrossRef Google Scholar

[168] Yu D S, Dai L M. Self-Assembled Graphene/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Films for Supercapacitors. J Phys Chem Lett, 2010, 1: 467-470 CrossRef Google Scholar

[169] Cheng Q, Tang J, Ma J. Graphene and nanostructured MnO2 composite electrodes for supercapacitors. Carbon, 2011, 49: 2917-2925 CrossRef Google Scholar

[170] Yang S Y, Chang K H, Tien H W. Design and tailoring of a hierarchical graphene-carbon nanotube architecture for supercapacitors. J Mater Chem, 2011, 21: 2374-2380 CrossRef Google Scholar

[171] Dimitrakakis G K, Tylianakis E, Froudakis G E. Pillared Graphene: A New 3-D Network Nanostructure for Enhanced Hydrogen Storage. Nano Lett, 2008, 8: 3166-3170 CrossRef PubMed ADS Google Scholar

[172] Mao Y L, Zhong J X. The computational design of junctions by carbon nanotube insertion into a graphene matrix. New J Phys, 2009, 11: 093002 CrossRef ADS Google Scholar

[173] Du F, Yu D S, Dai L M. Preparation of Tunable 3D Pillared Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Networks for High-Performance Capacitance. Chem Mater, 2011, 23: 4810-4816 CrossRef Google Scholar

[174] Zhao M Q, Liu X F, Zhang Q. Graphene/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrids: one-step catalytic growth and applications for high-rate Li-S batteries.. ACS Nano, 2012, 6: 10759-10769 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

[175] Li S S, Luo Y h, Lv W. Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Graphene Paper as Electrodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2011, 1: 486-490 CrossRef Google Scholar

[176] Bae S H, Karthikeyan K, Lee Y S. Microwave self-assembly of 3D graphene-carbon nanotube-nickel nanostructure for high capacity anode material in lithium ion battery. Carbon, 2013, 64: 527-536 CrossRef Google Scholar

[177] Lv R, Cruz-Silva E, Terrones M. Building complex hybrid carbon architectures by covalent interconnections: graphene-nanotube hybrids and more.. ACS Nano, 2014, 8: 4061-4069 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar

  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Schematic of the electronic, opto-electronic devices and supercapacitors based on graphene/CNTs all-carbon materials. The main examples of the representative architecture and their main features are exhibited.

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) The structures of carbon nanotube and graphene. (a) The carbon atoms of graphene in a honeycomb lattice. A nanotube formed by rolling a strip of graphene along the chiral vector ($C_{h})$ [4]@Copyright 2007 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (b) Bandgaps versus nanotube radius for several selected families CNTs with different chiral [n,~m] [18]@Copyright 2005 ACS. The electronic DOS for selected metallic (c) and semiconducting (d) nanotubes [30]@Copyright 2011, ACS. (e) The linear energy dispersion of graphene in the honeycomb lattice [3]@Copyright 2009 APS.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Growth separation and transfer of carbon nanotubes and graphene. (a) The typical SEM image of horizontally CNTs [34]@Copyright 2001 AIP. (b) The centrifuge tube loaded with as-received nanotubes with different diameters [35]@Copyright 2009 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (c) Unzipping diagram from a carbon nanotube to a nanoribbon. Inset: a TEM image of formed nanoribbon [36]@Copyright 2009 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (d) Graphene transferred from the Pt foil to a SiO$_{2}$ chip [37]@Copyright 2012 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (e) Photograph of fast growth graphene transferred on the wafer [38]@Copyright 2016 Wiley. (f) Schematics of graphene growth by local fluorine. (g) SEM image of graphene domains growing at $\Delta~t$=5 s [39]@Copyright 2019 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Configuration models and fabrications of all-carbon hybrids. (a) Hybrids of graphene with horizontal CNTs and the typical synthesis process [69]@Copyright 2012 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (b) Hybrids of graphene with vertical CNTs and the typical synthesis process [70] @Copyright 2014 ACS. (c) TEM and schematic of the vein-membrane-like hybrid [71]@Copyright 2013 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (d) TEM image of interconnected SWCNT networks in rebar graphene sheets [70]@Copyright 2014 ACS. (e) Hybrid paper macroscopic appearance after thermal reduction [72] @Copyright 2013 ACS. (f) SEM of nanotube carpet [69]@Copyright 2012 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (g) and (h) SEM images of the cross-section of all-carbon hybrid microfibers [73]@Copyright 2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) All-carbon hybrids for electronic devices. (a) Transparent electrodes based on graphene/CNTs hybrid films compared with ITO films [113] @Copyright 2009 ACS. (b) The sheet resistances distribution of graphene/CNTs hybrids measured along parallel ($\vert~\vert~)$ and perpendicular ($~\bot )$ to CNT array. (c) Optical transmittance spectra of the flat electrochromic device [116]@Copyright 2015 Wiley. (d) Hysteresis of the device using graphene gate electrode [117]@Copyright 2011 ACS. (e) Current change of on/off states versus the duration time of gate pulse [118]@Copyright 2011 Wiley. (f) Output characteristics of an inverter [117]@Copyright 2011 ACS. (g) The current variations to the acoustic vibrations from different words [119]@Copyright 2017 Wiley. (h) Field emission current density as a function of applied field of graphene/CNTs hybrids with different CNT densities [120]@Copyright 2012 RSC. (i) Photograph of a field-emitting device [121]@Copyright 2010 Wiley.

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) All-carbon hybrids for optoelectronic devices. (a) Comparison of transport characteristics between graphene and metal CNT (m-CNT) and semiconducting CNT (s-CNT) [143]@Copyright 2011 AIP. (b) External quantum efficiency of all-carbon photodetector under 650 nm illumination. Inset shows the responsivities versus optical power of different illumination wavelengths [124]@Copyright 2015 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (c) Images of folded photodetector and its photoresponse under a high strain of over 50%[144]Copyright 2017 Wiley. (d) Power conversion efficiency of the different solar cells [145]@Copyright 2015 IOP. (e) Electroluminescence (EL) spectra with the current in LED [146]@Copyright 2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (f) Schematic illustrations of the synapse based on graphene/SWNT hybrids. (g) The change of PSC amplitudes triggered by a presynaptic light spike Insets: the typical IPSC and EPSC changes triggered by the light spike [147]@Copyright 2017 IOP. (h) Image of the integrated array based on graphene/C$_{60}$ all-carbon hybrids. (i) The corresponding spatial-light mapping for the devices [148]@Copyright 2019 ACS.

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) All-carbon hybrids with different dimensionalities for energy storages. (a) Illustration of 2D graphene/CNTs hybrids via self-assembly process [168]@Copyright 2009 ACS. (b) Cycling performance of all-carbon composite electrode [165]@Copyright 2011 RSC. (c) Vertical CNTs pillar height versus the nanotube deposition time. Inset is a SEM image of thermally expanded graphene layers intercalated with CNTs [170]@Copyright 2011 ACS. (d) The density, surface area of hybrid fibers as a function of SWNT fraction. Inset show a photograph of the as-prepared fibers collected in water. (e) Schematic of a self-powered nanosystem. Inset: SEM of an aligned TiO$_{2}$ nanorod array [73]@Copyright 2014 Macmillan Publishers Ltd. (f) Cyclic performance and high-rate capability of the vertically aligned CNT/graphene film in a lithium-ion battery [171]@Copyright 2011 Wiley. (g) Schematics of 3D graphene/CNT-Ni nanostructure as an anode material during the charging and discharging processes in lithium-ion batteries [172]@Copyright 2013 IOP.

  • Table 1   Comparison of technical features of all-carbon hybrids forelectronics, optoelectronics and energy storages
    Architecture Electronics Optoelectronics Energy storages
    Individual CNT High carrier mobility and Limited response time and High electrical
    small on/off ratio for responsivity from UV conductivity but tends
    metallic CNTs; to NIR to stack into bundles
    Larger on/off ratio and
    limited carrier mobility
    for semiconducting CNTs
    Individual graphene High carrier mobility but Ultrafast photoresponse High surface area,
    small on/off ratio (GHz) but limited chemically stable but
    responsivity from easily forms irreversible
    UV to THz agglomerates
    2D planar CNT/graphene High carrier mobility and Strong light absorption Well suited for
    limited on/off ratio and high carrier mobility; optoelectronics such
    due to graphene efficient exciton separation as photodetectors
    at interface; fast
    response time and
    high photoresponsivity
    3D vertical CNT/graphene Well suited for energy Strong light absorption High surface-to-volume
    storages such as and high carrier ratio; abundant mesoporosity
    Li-ion batteries mobility; improved and activation sites