SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 12 : 220405(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-019-1472-6

A study on ionic gated MoS$_2$ phototransistors

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  • ReceivedJun 2, 2019
  • AcceptedJul 24, 2019
  • PublishedOct 31, 2019



This work was partially supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program (Grant Nos. 2016YFB0400801), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61722408, 61835012, 51802041), Key Research Project of Frontier Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant Nos. QYZDY-SSW-JSC042, QYZDB-SSW-JSC016), National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents (Grant No. BX20180329), and Shanghai Sailing Program (Grant No. 19YF1454900).


Figures S1–S6.


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) Device structure and characteristics of MoS$_2$. (a) A three-dimensional structure diagram of the MoS$_2$ phototransistor with electrolyte-gel gating. (b) Micrograph of an MoS$_2$ transistor with a side gate prepared on the fused silica substrate. The area circled by the red ellipse will be covered by electrolyte-gel. (c) The height of MoS$_2$ used as the channel is approximately 22 nm, the inset is the AFM morphology of the device. (d) Raman spectrum of MoS$_2$ on the fused silica substrate with two vibration modes $E_{2g}^1$ and $A_{1g}$ (the laser excitation wavelength is 532 nm).

  • Figure 2

    (Color online) Electrical characteristics and working principle of the device. (a) A working circuit schematic of the MoS$_2$ phototransistor with electrolyte-gel gating; (b) the transfer curves of the device at 100 mV drain bias; protectłinebreak (c) the output characteristics of the device with gate voltage varies from $-$3 V to 3 V; (d)–(f) schematics of device working principle at positive, zero and negative gate voltage. When $V_g~\ne~0~$ V, an electric-double layer is formed at the surface of the side gate electrode and the MoS$_2$ channel.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Schottky barrier modulation of electrolyte-gel gating. (a) The photocurrent mapping of the MoS$_2$ phototransistor covered with electrolyte-gel and the $V_g~=~0$ V, $V_d~=~0$ V. Significant photocurrent generation can be found at the contact between MoS$_2$ channel and source/drain electrode. Red and blue color represent positive and negative photocurrent, respectively. (b) A section cut perpendicular to the plane along two extreme points in (a). It is apparent that a photocurrent is generated at the position of Schottky barrier. (c) Schottky barrier height and standard deviation of the device at different gate voltages. (d) The band structure of MoS$_2$ at $V_g~=~3$ V, $V_g~=~0$ V, $V_g~=~-3$ V. The drain bias is 0 V in all cases. $\phi_{B1}$, $E_{f1}$, $\phi_{B2}$, $E_{f2}$, $\phi_{B3}$, $E_{f3}$ correspond to Schottky barrier height and Fermi level at $V_g~=~3$ V, $V_g~=~0$ V, $V_g~=~-3$ V, respectively. $E_c$, $E_v$, $E_i$, and $E_g$ represent the conduction band, valence band, intrinsic Fermi level and band gap of MoS$_2$, respectively.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Optoelectronic performance of the MoS$_2$ phototransistor gated by electrolyte-gel. (a) $I_d$-$V_d$ characteristics of the device with $V_g~=~-3$ V under dark and different laser powers (the laser wavelength is 520 nm and the power varies from 0.09 nW to 27.1 ${\mu}$W); (b) the photocurrent dependence on the incident laser power; (c) the responsivity and detectivity of the device at different incident light powers; (d) the photocurrent rise and fall time of the device at $V_g~=~-3$ V and $V_d =~100$ mV.