SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 10 : 200102(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-018-1465-6

A manual inspection of Defects4J bugs and its implications for automatic program repair

• AcceptedJun 21, 2019
• PublishedSep 6, 2019
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Acknowledgment

This work was supported by National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFB1001803) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61672045).

References

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• Figure 1

(Color online) The call graph of Chart-2.

• Figure 2

(Color online) Stack trace of defect Lang-1. Lines 469 and 472 are real faulty conditions.

• Table 1   Compare our analysis result with existing automatic repair techniques on our dataset$^{\rm~a)}$
 jGenProg jKali Nopol ACS HDR ssFix ELIXIR JAID CapGen SimFix Munal Chart 0/4 0/2 1/1 0/0 2/– 1/3 3/1 0/2 2/0 3/0 7/3 Closure –/– –/– –/– –/– 1/– 0/1 –/– 0/1 –/– 0/0 8/1 Lang 0/0 0/0 0/0 1/0 2/– 1/1 1/0 0/0 1/0 0/1 10/0 Math 2/1 1/1 0/0 3/0 1/– 0/4 1/1 1/0 1/0 1/3 7/2 Time 0/1 0/1 0/0 0/0 0/– 0/1 1/0 0/0 0/0 1/0 9/0 Total 2/6 1/4 1/1 4/0 6/– 2/10 6/2 1/3 4/0 5/4 41/6
• Table 2   Strategies applied to locate faulty method in our analysis
 Strategy Description Defects$^{\rm~a)}$ Excluding unexecuted statements Exclude those statements not executed by failing test All defects Excluding unlikely candidates Filter all non-related candidates based on their functionalities and complexities L-1, 2, 4, 7, 9; M-5, 10; Ch-2; Cl-9; T-1, 4, 10 Stack trace analysis Locate faulty locations based on the stack trace information thrown by failing test cases L-1, 5, 6; M-3, 4, 8; Ch-4, 9; Cl-2; T-2, 5, 7, 8, 10 Locating undesirable value changes Locate those statements that change the input values to the final faulty values of failing test cases L-8; Cl-1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10; T-3, 9 Checking programming practice Identify those code that obviously violate some programming principles based on previous programming experience L-6, 8; Ch-1, 7, 8 Predicate switching Inverse condition statements to get expected output, the inversed condition statement is the error location L-3; Ch-1, 9; Cl-10 Program understanding Understand the logic of faulty program and the functionalities of relevant objects and methods L-10; M-6, 9; Ch-3; Cl-9; T-3, 9 a) L, M, Ch, Cl and T denote Lang, Math, Chart, Closure and Time project, respectively.
• Table 3   Strategies used to generate patches in our analysis
 Strategy Description Defects Add NullPointer checker Add null pointer checker before using the object to avoid NullPointerException M-4; Ch-4; Cl-2 Return expected output Return the expected value according to the assertions L-2, 7, 9; M-3, 5, 10; T-1, 3 Replace an identifier with a similar one Replace an identifier with another one that has the similar name and same type in the scope L-6, 8; Ch-7, 8 Compare test executions Generate patches by comparing the failed tests with those passed tests with similar test inputs L-2, 5 Interpret comments Generate patches by directly interpreting comments written in natural language M-9; Cl-1, 5, 7, 9; T-8, 9 Imitate similar code element Imitate the code that is near the error location and has similar structures L-4, 5; M-6, 8; Ch-1, 2, 7, 9; Cl-3, 8, 10; T-5, 7, 10 Fix by program understanding Generate patches by understanding the functionality of program L-1, 3, 9, 10; M-6, 9; Ch-2, 3; Cl-3, 8; T-1, 2, 4, 10

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