SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, Volume 61 , Issue 6 : 062403(2018) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11432-017-9192-5

Surface-plasmonic right-angle waveguide amplifiers

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  • ReceivedApr 9, 2017
  • AcceptedAug 1, 2017
  • PublishedNov 20, 2017



This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 60377023, 61671306) and Science and Technology Innovation Commission of Shenzhen (Grant No. JCYJ20160328- 145357990).


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  • Figure 1

    (Color online) A waveguide structure with bismuth-doped glass film (BiG) as core layer and Ag films as cladding layers. (a) Principal view; (b) cutaway view.

  • Figure 2

    Schematic coordination configuration energy levels of bismuth-doped glass with excited state absorption.protectłinebreak (a) Two electrons are excited to 3rd-levels; (b) one electron transits to ground level and other is excited to 4th-level; (c) one electron is excited to 3rd-level and other is excited to higher level.

  • Figure 3

    (Color online) Transmission, reflection and loss spectra of un-doped MIM right-angle waveguide calculated using FDTD method. `a' is an arbitrary unit, `c' is speed of light.

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) Dependence of small-signal gain of bismuth-doped glass waveguide amplifier on waveguide length. Doping concentration, pump power, signal wavelength and signal input power are 2.0$\times~$10$^{26}$ /m$^{3}$, 100 mW, 1532 nm and 1.0 $\mu$W, respectively.

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Variation of small-signal gain and noise figure of bismuth ion-doped waveguide amplifier on bismuth ion concentration. Waveguide length, pump power, signal wavelength and signal input power are 10.0 cm, protect 100 mW, 1532 nm and 1.0 $\mu$W, respectively.

  • Table 1   Spectroscopic parameters of bismuth ion-doped glasses
    DescriptionParameters value (unit)
    Pump /signal wavelength ($\lambda~$p/$\lambda~$s)980 nm/1530 nm
    Absorption/emission cross section @980 nm9.0$\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$ / 9.0$\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$
    Excited state absorption cross section @980 nm9.0$\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$
    Absorption /emission cross section @1530 nm8.0 $\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$/ 8.0 $\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$
    Absorption/emission cross section @700 nm3.33$\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$ /3.33 $\times~$10$^{~-~26}$ m$^{2}$
    Absorption/emission cross section @500 nm8.31$\times~$10$^{~-~25}$ m$^{2}$ /8.31 $\times~$10$^{~-~25}$ m$^{2}$
    $A_{21}$ (Bi$^{+}~~^{3}P_{1}-~^{3}\!P_{0})$1000/5.0/s
    $A_{31}$ (Bi$^{+}~~^{3}P_{2}-~^{3}\!P_{0})$10000/s
    $A_{41}$ (Bi$^{+}~~^{3}P_{3}-~^{3}\!P_{0})$1000000/230/s
    $A_{32}$ (Bi$^{+}~~^{3}P_{2}-~^{3}\!P_{1})$1000000/s
    Waveguide core width, height1.0 $\mu~$m
    Overlap @1530 nm0.8
    Overlap @980 nm0.6
    Overlap @500 nm, 700 nm0.4
  • Table 2   Doping concentrations and internal gain and gain per unit length ofsurface-plasmonic bismuth ion-doped right-angle glass waveguide amplifierand erbium and ytterbium co-doped phosphate fiber amplifier $^{\rm~a)}$
    Pumping power/Optimal erbium/ytterbium Gain Gain/cm Reference
    Fiber lengthconcentration (ion/m$^{3}$)(dB)(dB/cm)
    224 mW/3.6 cm4.0$\times~$10$^{26}$, 8.0$\times~$10$^{26}$31.08.61[22]
    224 mW/5.55 cm3.0$\times~$10$^{26}$, 8.0$\times~$10$^{26}$35.06.31[22]
    Pump power/wave-Bismuth ion concentrationGainGain/cmThis work
    guide length
    100 mW/8.0 cm2.0$\times~$10$^{26}$28.015.32