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SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 9 : 1441-1452(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-019-9370-8

n-Alkyl lipid concentrations and distributions in aquatic plants and their individual δD variations

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  • ReceivedFeb 16, 2019
  • AcceptedMay 28, 2019
  • PublishedJul 3, 2019

Abstract


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant,No.,41573005)

the National Basic Research Programme of China(Grant,No.,2013CB955901)

the Key Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(Grant,No.,QYZDY-SSW-DQC001)

and the State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology(Grant,No.,SKLLQG1632)


Acknowledgment

We thank Mrs. Yunning Cao for support with GC and GC-TC-IRMS analyses. Two anonymous reviewers are thanked for constructive comments. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41573005), the National Basic Research Programme of China (Grant No. 2013CB955901), the Key Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. QYZDY-SSW-DQC001), and the State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology (Grant No. SKLLQG1632).


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  • Figure 1

    Locations of lakes investigated in this study (red circles, 1, Erhai Lake; 2, Tiancai Lake; 3, Lugu Lake; 4, Daihai Lake; 5, Dali Lake; 6, Wusulangzi Lake; 7, Songye Lake; 8, Songshu Lake; 9, Hulun Lake) and in previous studies (blue circles), including Ficken et al. (2000), Nuñez et al. (2002), Aichner et al. (2010a, 2017), Gao et al. (2011), Duan and Xu (2012), Wang and Liu (2012), Guenther et al. (2013), Duan et al. (2014), Li et al. (2015), Liu et al. (2015, 2018b), and Liu and Liu (2016, 2017).

  • Figure 2

    Concentrations of C27–C33 n-alkanes and C26–C32 FAs in algae (blue dots), submerged plants (red dots) and terrestrial plants (green dots) for samples collected from Yunnan, Inner Mongolia and our previous reports from the Tibetan Plateau (Liu and Liu, 2016, 2017; Liu et al., 2018b). (a) Concentrations of C27–C33 n-alkanes; (b) concentrations of C26–C32 FAs. Scattered plots show all values from analysed samples, and box plots show the dispersion of these data. Red, submergedplants; blue, algae; green, terrestrialplants.

  • Figure 3

    n-Alkane distributions in algae and submerged plants. (a) Algae and submerged plant n-alkane molecular variations in samples collected from Yunnan (YN), Inner Mongolia (IM) and our previous reports from the Tibetan Plateau (TP) (Liu and Liu, 2016; Liu et al., 2018b); (b) summary of n-alkane distributions in algae and submerged plants for the newly collected samples in this study, as well as previous published reports (Ficken et al., 2000; Nuñez et al., 2002; Aichner et al., 2010a, 2017; Gao et al., 2011; Duan and Xu, 2012; Wang and Liu, 2012; Guenther et al., 2013; Duan et al., 2014; Li et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2015, 2018b; Liu and Liu, 2016). Error bars are standard deviation.

  • Figure 4

    FA distributions in algae and submerged plants. (a) Algae and submerged plant FA molecular variations in samples collected from Yunnan (YN), Inner Mongolia (IM) and our previous reports from the Tibetan Plateau (TP, Liu and Liu, 2017); (b) summary of FA distributions in algae and submerged plants for the newly collected samples in this study, as well as previous published reports (Ficken et al., 2000; Gao et al., 2011; Wang and Liu, 2012; Liu and Liu, 2017). Error bars are standard deviation.

  • Figure 5

    Comparison of n-alkane Paq and Paq′ values in submerged plants and terrestrial plants. (a), (b) Paq and Paq′ values in submerged plants and terrestrial plants for samples newly collected from Yunnan, Inner Mongolia and our previous reports from the Tibetan Plateau (Liu and Liu, 2016; Liu et al., 2018b); (c), (d) calculated Paq and Paq′ values of submerged plants in this study and previous published results (Ficken et al., 2000; Aichner et al., 2010a, 2017; Gao et al., 2011; Duan and Xu, 2012; Guenther et al., 2013; Duan et al., 2014; Li et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2015, 2018b; Liu and Liu, 2016) and terrestrial plants. Green, submerged plants; blue, terrestrial plants.

  • Figure 6

    Comparison of FA proxies in algae, submerged plants and terrestrial plants for samples collected from Yunnan, Inner Mongolia and our previous report from the Tibetan Plateau (Liu and Liu, 2017). Blue, submerged plants; red, algae; green, terrestrial plants.

  • Figure 7

    Relationship between FA proxies and water depth for the Potamogeton samples collected from Yunnan, Inner Mongolia and our previous report from the Tibetan Plateau (Liu and Liu, 2017). (a) STR24; (b) Ratios of C26–C32 FAs over total C20–C32 FAs.

  • Figure 8

    Whisker-box showing the inter-molecular variations of n-alkanes and FAs in aquatic plants. (a) C23–C31 n-alkane δD values in each sample collected from Yunnan and Inner Mongolia; (b) deviation values of odd-numbered n-alkane δD relative to their mean value in each aquatic plant sample in this study and re-analysed published results (Chikaraishi and Naraoka, 2003; Hou et al., 2007; Mügler et al., 2008; Aichner et al., 2010b, 2017; Duan and Xu, 2012; Guenther et al., 2013; Duan et al., 2014; Li et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2016, 2018b); (c) C20–C30 FA δD values in each sample collected from Yunnan and Inner Mongolia; (d) deviations of FA δD values relative to their mean value in each aquatic plant sample in this study and re-analysed published results (Hou et al., 2007; Liu et al. 2018a).

  • Table 1   -Alkane and FA D values in each algae, submerged plant and terrestrial plant sample collected from Yunnan and Inner Mongolia, China

    Sample

    Lake

    Genus

    Plant type

    n-Alkane δD (‰)

    Fatty acid δD (‰)

    C23

    C25

    C27

    C29

    C31

    C33

    C20

    C22

    C24

    C26

    C28

    C30

    YNP15-5-1

    Erhai Lake

    Myriophyllum

    Submerged plant

    −209

    YNP15-5-2

    Erhai Lake

    Ceratophyllum

    Submerged plant

    −177

    −176

    YNP15-5-3

    Erhai Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −214

    −207

    YNP15-10-1

    Tiancai Lake

    n.a.

    Submerged plant

    −241

    −250

    YNP15-13-2

    Tiancai Lake

    n.a.

    Submerged plant

    −236

    −242

    YNP15-14-2

    Lugu Lake

    Ottelia acuminata

    Submerged plant

    −218

    −217

    −213

    −217

    −217

    YNP15-15-2

    Lugu Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −220

    −224

    −215

    −221

    YNP15-21-2

    Lugu Lake

    Ottelia acuminata

    Submerged plant

    −220

    −218

    −214

    −227

    YNP15-21-4

    Lugu Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −231

    YNP15-4

    Erhai Lake

    Chara

    Algae

    −163

    YNP15-13-1

    Tiancai Lake

    Chara

    Algae

    −216

    YNP15-14-1

    Lugu Lake

    Chara

    Algae

    −205

    −199

    YNP15-15-1

    Lugu Lake

    Chara

    Algae

    −185

    YNP15-16

    Lugu Lake

    Chara

    Algae

    −190

    YNP15-17

    Lugu Lake

    Chara

    Algae

    −178

    −188

    YNP15-21-1

    Lugu Lake

    Chara

    Algae

    −222

    −226

    −217

    IMP17-3

    Daihai Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −175

    −191

    −171

    −178

    −178

    IMP17-4

    Daihai Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −170

    −169

    −175

    −175

    IMP17-5

    Wusulangzi Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −224

    −225

    −228

    −215

    IMP17-6

    Wusulangzi Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −228

    −230

    −224

    IMP17-7-1

    Wusulangzi Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −233

    −226

    −228

    IMP17-9-1

    Songshu Lake

    Myriophyllum

    Submerged plant

    −243

    −221

    IMP17-9-2

    Songshu Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −218

    −216

    −233

    −226

    −219

    IMP17-10-1

    Songye Lake

    n.a.

    Submerged plant

    −218

    −210

    −214

    IMP17-12-2

    Hulun Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −251

    −243

    −247

    −247

    IMP17-15

    Dali Lake

    Potamogeton

    Submerged plant

    −208

    −197

    −197

    IMP17-12-3

    Hulun Lake

    Spirogyra

    Algae

    −238

    −240

    −215

    YNP15-6-1

    Erhai Lake

    Zizania latifolia

    Terrestrial plant

    −200

    −201

    YNP15-6-2

    Erhai Lake

    Salix babylonica

    Terrestrial plant

    −187

    −205

    −172

    −169

    YNP15-7-1

    Erhai Lake

    Heteropogon

    Terrestrial plant

    −224

    −218

    −220

    YNP15-7-2

    Erhai Lake

    Platycladus orientalis

    Terrestrial plant

    −177

    −192

    YNP15-7-3

    Erhai Lake

    Artemisia

    Terrestrial plant

    −178

    −220

    −200

    YNP15-7-4

    Erhai Lake

    Coriaria nepalensis

    Terrestrial plant

    −233

    −238

    −229

    −241

    YNP15-7-5

    Erhai Lake

    Eupatorium adenophora

    Terrestrial plant

    −210

    −187

    −189

    YNP15-7-6

    Erhai Lake

    Colquhounia coccinea

    Terrestrial plant

    −219

    −227

    −212

    −209

    YNP15-8-1

    Tiancai Lake

    Juncus effusus

    Terrestrial plant

    −243

    −221

    −237

    −221

    YNP15-8-2

    Tiancai Lake

    Deyeuxia

    Terrestrial plant

    −270

    −247

    −253

    YNP15-8-3

    Tiancai Lake

    Shrub

    Terrestrial plant

    −217

    −217

    −214

    YNP15-8-4

    Tiancai Lake

    Moss

    Terrestrial plant

    −227

    −218

    YNP15-9-1

    Tiancai Lake

    Picea asperata

    Terrestrial plant

    −248

    −250

    −213

    YNP15-9-3

    Tiancai Lake

    Ribes

    Terrestrial plant

    −187

    −179

    −179

    YNP15-9-2

    Tiancai Lake

    Rhododendron simsii

    Terrestrial plant

    −222

    −211

    −234

    n.a., not available

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