SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, Volume 60 , Issue 1 : 20-29(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-016-0166-y

Anatomy of a eustatic event during the Turonian (Late Cretaceous) hot greenhouse climate

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  • ReceivedJul 27, 2016
  • AcceptedNov 2, 2016
  • PublishedDec 7, 2016



The authors are very grateful to the organizers and hosts of the IGCP 609 International Workshop on Climate and Environmental Evolution in the Mesozoic Greenhouse World, held in Nanjing, China from 5−11 September 2015, for putting together a highly stimulating and most enjoyable meeting. The authors also thank two anonymous reviewers for their contributions toward improvement of this paper. This paper is a contribution to IGCP Project 609 “Climate-environmental deteriorations during greenhouse phases: Causes and consequences of short-term Cretaceous sea-level changes”.


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  • Figure 1

    Upper Cenomanian–Turonian ammonite and inoceramid biozones and previously identified sea level fall events identified as unconformities (wavy pattern) and sequence boundaries (numbered events) that include third-order events labeled in bold. Diagonal pattern represents missing time and/or missing section. Age estimates for Northwest European ammonite zones are from Ogg and Hinnov (2012). Positions of hiatuses (wavy lines) estimated from relative position in biozone used for regional correlation. Dashed biozones and hiatuses may have significant age uncertainty. Labels and disconformities shown for some of the sequence boundary events were used in the original publications. References include: 1, Haq (2014); 2, Joo and Sageman (2014); 3, Sageman et al. (1998); 4, Miller et al. (2004); 5, Gale (1996); 6, Hardenbol et al. (1998) and Hardenbol and Robaszynski (1998); 7, Voigt and Hilbrecht (1997); 8, Wilmsen and Nagm (2013); 9, Sahagian et al. (1996). Abbreviations are as follows: Ang. = Aristrocrat Angus core; Port. = USGS #1 Portland core; Mark. Plat. = Markagunt Plateau; N.J. Cst. Pl. = New Jersey Coastal Plain; Anc. = Ancora core; Bass = Bass River core; NW Euro. = Northwest Europe; Salz.-Sald. = Salzgitter-Salder quarry. See cited publications for full spelling of biozones.

  • Table 1   Various mechanisms that can modify local/regional (eurybatic) and global (eustatic) measures of sea levels, their time scales, their magnitude of change, and their extent


    Operative time scales

    Magnitude of change

    Potential extent

    Water sequestration on land

    1) Terrestrial acquifers and lakes

    <0.01 Myr

    up to 100 m


    2) Glaciations/deglaciations

    0.01−0.1 Myr

    100−250 m


    3) Water exchange with mantle

    ?0.1−1.0 Myr



    Changes in container capacity of oceans

    1) GIA a) elastic rebound

    0.000001 Myr

    up to 100 m


    b) viscous mantle flow

    0.0001−0.1 Myr

    2) Mean age of oceanic crust

    50−100 Myr

    100−300 m


    3) Ridge production rate changes

    50−100 Myr

    4) Ocean floor volcanic activity (LIPS)

    1−10 Myr

    500−1000 m


    5) Mantle/Lithosphere interactions

    1−10 Myr

    10−100 m


    6) Intraplate deformation

    1−10 Myr

    10−1000 m


    7) Dynamic topography

    >5 Myr

    up to 1000 m


    8) Sedimentation

    1−10 Myr

    50−100 m


    GIA: Glacial Isostatic Adjustment. After Cloetingh and Haq (2015).


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