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A non-wetting and conductive polyethylene dioxothiophene hole transport layer for scalable and flexible perovskite solar cells

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  • ReceivedDec 15, 2020
  • AcceptedJan 29, 2021
  • PublishedMar 19, 2021

Abstract


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(NSFC)

the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars(51425304)

NSFC-Guangdong Joint funding

China(U1801256)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (5167, 3091, 22005131, U20A20128, 51833004), the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (51425304) and NSFC-Guangdong Joint funding, China (U1801256).


Interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Supplement

Supporting information

The supporting information is available online at http://chem.scichina.com and http://link.springer.com/journal/11426. The supporting materials are published as submitted, without typesetting or editing. The responsibility for scientific accuracy and content remains entirely with the authors.


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  • Figure 1

    Diagram of synthesis process and optical performance. (a) Synthesis of Oil-PEDOT by free-radical polymerization in nitrogen atmosphere (here BPO is benzoyl peroxide, PTSA is p-toluenesulfonic acid, SBS is poly(styrene-co-butadiene) and EDOT is 3,4-ethoxythiophene, respectively). (b) Chemical structures of the Oil-PEDOT. (c) Schematic illustration of meniscus-coating (here hc-PEDOT:PSS is high conductivity PEDOT:PSS). (d) Transmittance of Oil-PEDOT and PEDOT:PSS films. (e) Ohmic behavior of Oil-PEDOT and PEDOT:PSS films. (f) Energy band alignment in perovskite solar cells (color online).

  • Figure 2

    Quality and morphology analysis of Oil-PEDOT and PEDOT:PSS. (a) Fourier-transform infrared spectra represent of Oil-PEDOT film. (b, c) XPS spectra of S 2p. (d) Raman spectra. (e, f) GIWAXS patterns. (g, h) AFM characterizations. (i, j) The contact angle analysis. (k, l) The optical microscope image of fluid level diffusion (color online).

  • Figure 3

    Morphology and quality analysis of perovskite films. SEM image of perovskite film based on (a) PEDOT:PSS and (b) Oil-PEDOT HTLs. (c) XRD pattern of perovskite films based on PEDOT:PSS and Oil-PEDOT HTLs. 2D-GIWAXS patterns of perovskite films based on (d) PEDOT:PSS and (e) Oil-PEDOT HTLs. (f) LaMer curve exhibit perovskite of nucleation and growth based on PEDOT:PSS and Oil-PEDOT HTLs. (g) Absorbance and PL spectra of perovskite films based on PEDOT:PSS and Oil-PEDOT HTLs. (h) TRPL spectra of perovskite films based on PEDOT:PSS and Oil-PEDOT HTLs. (i) Crystalline reproducibility of (110) lattice plane based on 5 cm×5 cm perovskite films with PEDOT:PSS or Oil-PEDOT HTL (here different colors stand for the peak intensity of (110) orientation at different positions on the perovskite film) (color online).

  • Figure 4

    Performance of flexible PSCs. (a) Structure of flexible PSCs based on Oil-PEDOT HTL. (b) The images of flexible PSCs. (c) J-V curves of flexible PSCs based on PEDOT:PSS and Oil-PEDOT HTLs. (d) IPCE spectra. (e) The stabilized output power and photocurrent of flexible PSCs based on Oil-PEDOT HTL. (f) PCE distribution of flexible PSCs based on the Oil-PEDOT HTL. (g) The structure of flexible perovskite solar module. (h) The photograph of flexible perovskite solar modules. (i) J-V curve of flexible perovskite solar module based on Oil-PEDOT HTL (color online).

  • Figure 5

    Mechanical stability of flexible PSCs. (a) Normalized PCE measured of flexible PSCs after bending 100 cycles within curvature radius from flat to 2 mm. (b) Normalized PCE measured of flexible PSCs after bending 7,000 cycles with a curvature radius of 2 mm. (c) The long-term stability characterization of corresponding device based on different HTLs and stored in air. ToF-SIMS elemental depth measured of flexible PSCs based on different HTL of (d) PEDOT:PSS and (e) Oil-PEDOT (color online).

  • Table 1   Summarized photovoltaic parameters for devices with Oil-PEDOT or PEDOT:PSS HTL

    Hole transports layer

    Scan direction

    JSC(mA cm−2)

    VOC (V)

    FF (%)

    PCE (%)

    Integrated JSC (mA cm−2)

    PEDOT:PSS

    Reverse

    18.90

    1.00

    78

    14.84

    18.21

    Forward

    16.94

    0.98

    66

    11.02

    Oil-PEDOT

    Reverse

    22.42

    1.08

    80

    19.51

    22.26

    Forward

    22.08

    1.08

    80

    19.22

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