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Acoustic Analysis of Mandarin Chinese Vowels Produced by Young Adults

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  • ReceivedJan 1, 2020
  • PublishedJan 1, 2020

Abstract


Funded by

Supported by the Public Health Bureau of Shanghai Municipal Huangpu District

the University Research Funding,Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine


References

[1] FANT G.A note on vocal tract size factors and non-uniform F-pattern scaling[J].Speech Transmission Laboratory Quarterly Progress and Status Report,1966,1:22-30.. Google Scholar

[2] PETERSON G E, BARNEY H L. Control methods used in a study of the vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1952, 2: 175-184 Google Scholar

[3] PETERSON G E. Parameters of vowel quality. J Speech Hear Res, 1961, 1: 10-29 Google Scholar

[4] STRANGE W. Evolving theories of vowel perception. J Acoust Soc Am, 1989, 5: 2081-2087 Google Scholar

[5] LADEFOGED,PETER.A Course in Phonetics(Fifth Edition)[M].Boston,MA:Thomson Wadsworth,2006:188.. Google Scholar

[6] LADEFOGED,PETER.Vowels and Consonants:An Introduction to the Sounds of Language[M].Maldern,MA:Blackwell,2001:40.. Google Scholar

[7] HILLENBRAND J, GETTY L A, CLARK M J. Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1995, 5 Pt 1: 3099-3111 Google Scholar

[8] SYRDAL A K, GOPAL H S. A perceptual model of vowel recognition based on the auditory representation of American English vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1986, 4: 1086-1100 Google Scholar

[9] FOX R.A,JACEWICZ E.Dialect and generational differences in vowel space areas[C].Athens:Third ISCA Workshop on Experimental Linguistics,2010.. Google Scholar

[10] RAPHAEL L J,BORDEN G J,HARRIS K S.Speech Science Primer:Physiology,Acoustics,and Perception of Speech[M].5th ed.Baltimore:Williams&Wilkins Co,2007:105-130.. Google Scholar

[11] ANDRIANOPOULOS M V, DARROW K, CHEN J. Multimodal standardization of voice among four multicultural populations’formant structures. J Voice, 2001, 1: 61-77 Google Scholar

[12] CHEN Y Y.The acoustic realization of vowels of Shanghai Chinese[J].J Phon,2008,36:629-648.. Google Scholar

[13] MAJEWSKI W, HOLLIEN H. Formant frequency regions of Polish vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1967, 5: 1031-1037 Google Scholar

[14] SAKAYORI S, KITAMA T, CHIMOTO S. Critical spectral regions for vowel identification. Neurosci Res, 2002, 2: 155-162 Google Scholar

[15] VORPERIAN H K, KURTZWEIL S L, FOURAKIS M. Effect of body position on vocal tract acoustics Acoustic pharyngometry and vowel formants. J Acoust Soc Am, 2015, 2: 833-845 Google Scholar

[16] HOMMA Y.An acoustic study of Japanese vowels:their quality,pitch,amplitude,and duration[J].Stud Sounds,1973,16:347-368.. Google Scholar

[17] PURCELL E T. Formant frequency patterns in Russian VCV utterances. J Acoust Soc Am, 1979, 6: 1691-1702 Google Scholar

[18] WHITE P. Formant frequency analysis of children's spoken and sung vowels using sweeping fundamental frequency production. J Voice, 1999, 4: 570-582 Google Scholar

[19] LEE S, IVERSON G. K.The development of monophthongal vowels in Korean:age and sex differences. Clin Linguist Phon, 2008, 7: 523-536 Google Scholar

[20] NATOUR Y S,MARIE B S,SALEEM M A,TADROS Y K.Formant frequency characteristics in normal Arabic-speaking Jordanians[J].J Voice,2011,25(2):e75-e84.. Google Scholar

[21] CHEN C C, LIN K C, WU C Y. Acoustic study in Mandarin speaking children:developmental changes in vowel production. Chang Gung Med J, 2008, 5: 503-509 Google Scholar

[22] NG M L, CHEN Y. Proficiency in English sentence stress production by Cantonese speakers who speak English as a second language(ESL). Int J Speech Lang Pathol, 2011, 6: 526-535 Google Scholar

[23] TING H N, ZOURMAND A, CHIA S Y. Formant frequencies of malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 Years. J Voice, 2012, 5: 664-664 Google Scholar

[24] MAYO R,GRANT W C.Fundamental frequency,perturbation,and vocal tract resonance characteristics of African-American and white American males[J].J Natl Black Assoc Speech Lang Hear,1995,17:32-38.. Google Scholar

[25] SHAW J A,CHEN W R,PROCTOR M I,et al.Influences of tone vowel articulation in Mandarin Chinese[J].J Speech Lang Hear Res,2016,59(6):S1566-S1574.. Google Scholar

[26] DUANMU S.The phonology of standard Chinese[M].Oxford,UK:Oxford University Press,2000:1-15.. Google Scholar

[27] LIANG Y, NUMAN F A, LI K. Spectrum analysis of Chinese vowels formant in patients with tongue carcinoma underwent hemiglossectomy. Int J Clin Exp Med, 2015, 2: 2867-2873 Google Scholar

[28] CHEN Y, NG M L, LI T S. English vowels produced by Cantonese-English bilingual speakers. Inte J Speech Lang Pathol, 2012, 6: 557-568 Google Scholar

[29] KENT R D, WEISMER G, KENT J F. Acoustic studies of dysarthric speech:methods,progress,and potential. J Commun Disord, 1999, 3: 141-180 Google Scholar

[30] FANT G.Acoustic theory of speech production[M].The Hague:Mouton,1970:107-135.. Google Scholar

[31] FANT G.A note on vocal tract size factors and non-uniform F-pattern scaling[J].Speech Transmission Laboratory Quarterly Progress and Status Report,1966,1:22-30.. Google Scholar

[32] PETERSON G E, BARNEY H L. Control methods used in a study of the vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1952, 2: 175-184 Google Scholar

[33] PETERSON G E. Parameters of vowel quality. J Speech Hear Res, 1961, 1: 10-29 Google Scholar

[34] STRANGE W. Evolving theories of vowel perception. J Acoust Soc Am, 1989, 5: 2081-2087 Google Scholar

[35] LADEFOGED,PETER.A Course in Phonetics(Fifth Edition)[M].Boston,MA:Thomson Wadsworth,2006:188.. Google Scholar

[36] LADEFOGED,PETER.Vowels and Consonants:An Introduction to the Sounds of Language[M].Maldern,MA:Blackwell,2001:40.. Google Scholar

[37] HILLENBRAND J, GETTY L A, CLARK M J. Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1995, 5 Pt 1: 3099-3111 Google Scholar

[38] SYRDAL A K, GOPAL H S. A perceptual model of vowel recognition based on the auditory representation of American English vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1986, 4: 1086-1100 Google Scholar

[39] FOX R.A,JACEWICZ E.Dialect and generational differences in vowel space areas[C].Athens:Third ISCA Workshop on Experimental Linguistics,2010.. Google Scholar

[40] RAPHAEL L J,BORDEN G J,HARRIS K S.Speech Science Primer:Physiology,Acoustics,and Perception of Speech[M].5th ed.Baltimore:Williams&Wilkins Co,2007:105-130.. Google Scholar

[41] ANDRIANOPOULOS M V, DARROW K, CHEN J. Multimodal standardization of voice among four multicultural populations’formant structures. J Voice, 2001, 1: 61-77 Google Scholar

[42] CHEN Y Y.The acoustic realization of vowels of Shanghai Chinese[J].J Phon,2008,36:629-648.. Google Scholar

[43] ERICKSON D,IWATA R,ENDO L,et al.Effect of tone height on jaw and tone articulation in Mandarin Chinese[C].Beijing:Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages,2004:53-56.. Google Scholar

[44] FANT G.A note on vocal tract size factors and non-uniform F-pattern scaling[J].Speech Transmission Laboratory Quarterly Progress and Status Report,1966,1:22-30.. Google Scholar

[45] PETERSON G E, BARNEY H L. Control methods used in a study of the vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1952, 2: 175-184 Google Scholar

[46] PETERSON G E. Parameters of vowel quality. J Speech Hear Res, 1961, 1: 10-29 Google Scholar

[47] STRANGE W. Evolving theories of vowel perception. J Acoust Soc Am, 1989, 5: 2081-2087 Google Scholar

[48] LADEFOGED,PETER.A Course in Phonetics(Fifth Edition)[M].Boston,MA:Thomson Wadsworth,2006:188.. Google Scholar

[49] LADEFOGED,PETER.Vowels and Consonants:An Introduction to the Sounds of Language[M].Maldern,MA:Blackwell,2001:40.. Google Scholar

[50] HILLENBRAND J, GETTY L A, CLARK M J. Acoustic characteristics of American English vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1995, 5 Pt 1: 3099-3111 Google Scholar

[51] SYRDAL A K, GOPAL H S. A perceptual model of vowel recognition based on the auditory representation of American English vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1986, 4: 1086-1100 Google Scholar

[52] MAJEWSKI W, HOLLIEN H. Formant frequency regions of Polish vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1967, 5: 1031-1037 Google Scholar

[53] SAKAYORI S, KITAMA T, CHIMOTO S. Critical spectral regions for vowel identification. Neurosci Res, 2002, 2: 155-162 Google Scholar

[54] VORPERIAN H K, KURTZWEIL S L, FOURAKIS M. Effect of body position on vocal tract acoustics Acoustic pharyngometry and vowel formants. J Acoust Soc Am, 2015, 2: 833-845 Google Scholar

[55] HOMMA Y.An acoustic study of Japanese vowels:their quality,pitch,amplitude,and duration[J].Stud Sounds,1973,16:347-368.. Google Scholar

[56] FOX R.A,JACEWICZ E.Dialect and generational differences in vowel space areas[C].Athens:Third ISCA Workshop on Experimental Linguistics,2010.. Google Scholar

[57] RAPHAEL L J,BORDEN G J,HARRIS K S.Speech Science Primer:Physiology,Acoustics,and Perception of Speech[M].5th ed.Baltimore:Williams&Wilkins Co,2007:105-130.. Google Scholar

[58] PURCELL E T. Formant frequency patterns in Russian VCV utterances. J Acoust Soc Am, 1979, 6: 1691-1702 Google Scholar

[59] WHITE P. Formant frequency analysis of children's spoken and sung vowels using sweeping fundamental frequency production. J Voice, 1999, 4: 570-582 Google Scholar

[60] ANDRIANOPOULOS M V, DARROW K, CHEN J. Multimodal standardization of voice among four multicultural populations’formant structures. J Voice, 2001, 1: 61-77 Google Scholar

[61] CHEN Y Y.The acoustic realization of vowels of Shanghai Chinese[J].J Phon,2008,36:629-648.. Google Scholar

[62] MAJEWSKI W, HOLLIEN H. Formant frequency regions of Polish vowels. J Acoust Soc Am, 1967, 5: 1031-1037 Google Scholar

[63] SAKAYORI S, KITAMA T, CHIMOTO S. Critical spectral regions for vowel identification. Neurosci Res, 2002, 2: 155-162 Google Scholar

[64] LEE S, IVERSON G. K.The development of monophthongal vowels in Korean:age and sex differences. Clin Linguist Phon, 2008, 7: 523-536 Google Scholar

[65] NATOUR Y S,MARIE B S,SALEEM M A,TADROS Y K.Formant frequency characteristics in normal Arabic-speaking Jordanians[J].J Voice,2011,25(2):e75-e84.. Google Scholar

[66] VORPERIAN H K, KURTZWEIL S L, FOURAKIS M. Effect of body position on vocal tract acoustics Acoustic pharyngometry and vowel formants. J Acoust Soc Am, 2015, 2: 833-845 Google Scholar

[67] HOMMA Y.An acoustic study of Japanese vowels:their quality,pitch,amplitude,and duration[J].Stud Sounds,1973,16:347-368.. Google Scholar

[68] PURCELL E T. Formant frequency patterns in Russian VCV utterances. J Acoust Soc Am, 1979, 6: 1691-1702 Google Scholar

[69] WHITE P. Formant frequency analysis of children's spoken and sung vowels using sweeping fundamental frequency production. J Voice, 1999, 4: 570-582 Google Scholar

[70] LEE S, IVERSON G. K.The development of monophthongal vowels in Korean:age and sex differences. Clin Linguist Phon, 2008, 7: 523-536 Google Scholar

[71] NATOUR Y S,MARIE B S,SALEEM M A,TADROS Y K.Formant frequency characteristics in normal Arabic-speaking Jordanians[J].J Voice,2011,25(2):e75-e84.. Google Scholar

[72] CHEN C C, LIN K C, WU C Y. Acoustic study in Mandarin speaking children:developmental changes in vowel production. Chang Gung Med J, 2008, 5: 503-509 Google Scholar

[73] NG M L, CHEN Y. Proficiency in English sentence stress production by Cantonese speakers who speak English as a second language(ESL). Int J Speech Lang Pathol, 2011, 6: 526-535 Google Scholar

[74] TING H N, ZOURMAND A, CHIA S Y. Formant frequencies of malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 Years. J Voice, 2012, 5: 664-664 Google Scholar

[75] MAYO R,GRANT W C.Fundamental frequency,perturbation,and vocal tract resonance characteristics of African-American and white American males[J].J Natl Black Assoc Speech Lang Hear,1995,17:32-38.. Google Scholar

[76] SHAW J A,CHEN W R,PROCTOR M I,et al.Influences of tone vowel articulation in Mandarin Chinese[J].J Speech Lang Hear Res,2016,59(6):S1566-S1574.. Google Scholar

[77] DUANMU S.The phonology of standard Chinese[M].Oxford,UK:Oxford University Press,2000:1-15.. Google Scholar

[78] LIANG Y, NUMAN F A, LI K. Spectrum analysis of Chinese vowels formant in patients with tongue carcinoma underwent hemiglossectomy. Int J Clin Exp Med, 2015, 2: 2867-2873 Google Scholar

[79] CHEN Y, NG M L, LI T S. English vowels produced by Cantonese-English bilingual speakers. Inte J Speech Lang Pathol, 2012, 6: 557-568 Google Scholar

[80] KENT R D, WEISMER G, KENT J F. Acoustic studies of dysarthric speech:methods,progress,and potential. J Commun Disord, 1999, 3: 141-180 Google Scholar

[81] FANT G.Acoustic theory of speech production[M].The Hague:Mouton,1970:107-135.. Google Scholar

[82] ERICKSON D,IWATA R,ENDO L,et al.Effect of tone height on jaw and tone articulation in Mandarin Chinese[C].Beijing:Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages,2004:53-56.. Google Scholar

[83] CHEN C C, LIN K C, WU C Y. Acoustic study in Mandarin speaking children:developmental changes in vowel production. Chang Gung Med J, 2008, 5: 503-509 Google Scholar

[84] NG M L, CHEN Y. Proficiency in English sentence stress production by Cantonese speakers who speak English as a second language(ESL). Int J Speech Lang Pathol, 2011, 6: 526-535 Google Scholar

[85] TING H N, ZOURMAND A, CHIA S Y. Formant frequencies of malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 Years. J Voice, 2012, 5: 664-664 Google Scholar

[86] MAYO R,GRANT W C.Fundamental frequency,perturbation,and vocal tract resonance characteristics of African-American and white American males[J].J Natl Black Assoc Speech Lang Hear,1995,17:32-38.. Google Scholar

[87] SHAW J A,CHEN W R,PROCTOR M I,et al.Influences of tone vowel articulation in Mandarin Chinese[J].J Speech Lang Hear Res,2016,59(6):S1566-S1574.. Google Scholar

[88] DUANMU S.The phonology of standard Chinese[M].Oxford,UK:Oxford University Press,2000:1-15.. Google Scholar

[89] LIANG Y, NUMAN F A, LI K. Spectrum analysis of Chinese vowels formant in patients with tongue carcinoma underwent hemiglossectomy. Int J Clin Exp Med, 2015, 2: 2867-2873 Google Scholar

[90] CHEN Y, NG M L, LI T S. English vowels produced by Cantonese-English bilingual speakers. Inte J Speech Lang Pathol, 2012, 6: 557-568 Google Scholar

[91] KENT R D, WEISMER G, KENT J F. Acoustic studies of dysarthric speech:methods,progress,and potential. J Commun Disord, 1999, 3: 141-180 Google Scholar

[92] FANT G.Acoustic theory of speech production[M].The Hague:Mouton,1970:107-135.. Google Scholar

[93] ERICKSON D,IWATA R,ENDO L,et al.Effect of tone height on jaw and tone articulation in Mandarin Chinese[C].Beijing:Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tonal Aspects of Languages,2004:53-56.. Google Scholar

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