Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 64 , Issue 1 : 107-120(2019) https://doi.org/10.1360/N972018-00740

Nan'ao, an archaeological site of Song dynasty destroyed by tsunami

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  • ReceivedSep 25, 2018
  • AcceptedNov 6, 2018
  • PublishedDec 7, 2018







感谢中国科学技术大学人文学院张居中教授、中国古陶瓷学会副会长李广宁研究员协助了瓷器、陶器残片的鉴定, 感谢南澳县博物馆黄迎涛馆长带领我们参观博物馆馆藏文物, 提供南澳岛金石文物资料.

Contributions statement


Equally contributed to this work


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  • Figure 1

    The study area and sampling sites. (a) The location of Nan'ao Island. The brown area represents the ancient boundary of Chaozhou Prefecture. (b) The topography map of Nan'ao Island. (c) The sedimentary profiles of Songjing and Aoqiancun (red dots) and the coastal boulders (grey dot). (d) The sedimentary profiles of Qingaowan. (e) The sampling sites of Jiuxi'ao sandy deposits (red dots) and the location of the boulders (grey dots)

  • Figure 2

    The numerical simulation results of the South China Sea tsunami. The red dots represent Nan'ao Island. (a)−(f) The six scenarios caused by the six fault segments of Manila trench. COMCOT was used as the simulation program[12]. The locations of the fault segments and the earthquake parameters are from Liu et al. [13]

  • Figure 3

    The sea level change and temporal distribution of storm surges of the study area. (a) The sea level change of the Han River delta since the mid-Holocene[14]. (b) Temporal distribution of level I (tidal rise≥151 cm above the warning standard) and II (tidal rise 81−150 cm above the warning standard) storm surges hitting Guangdong Province from 1949 to 2008[15]

  • Figure 4

    The sedimentary profiles and their characteristics of the study area. (a) Songjing sedimentary profile. The section between the white dashed lines is layer A, which contains marine shells and shards of ceramics. (b) The 14C ages and mean grain sizes of the Songjing samples. (c) Aoqiancun sedimentary profile. The section between the white dashed lines is layer B. (d) The 14C ages and mean grain sizes of the Aoqiancun samples. (e) The 14C ages and TOC of the Qingaowan samples. (f) The 14C ages and LOI of the NA6 samples. Data of NA6 are from Ref. [21]. The blue shaded area represents the tsunami layer

  • Figure 5

    The grain size distribution curves of the sedimentary samples. The blue curves represent the tsunami layer samples and the yellow ones represent beach sands. (a) Songjing profile. (b) Aoqiancun profile. (c) Qingaowan profile. (d) Jiuxi'ao sand layer. The vertical axis of (d) corresponds to the distance to the coastline of Jiuxi'ao

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) Sand layer and boulders of Jiuxi'ao and the giant costal boulders of Songjing. (a) Jiuxi'ao sand layer and the brown-colored soil layer beneath the sand. (b) Boulders distributed along the hill root of Jiuxi'ao. (c) The giant boulders northwest of Songjing profile

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) The Song dynasty ceramics (a−h) and a stone mortar (i) of Song dynasty distributed along the sampling site of Songjing profile

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Ages of the archaeological relics of Nan'ao. (a) Archaeological relics and ancient construction sites. Data are from Refs. [8, 9]. (b) The coins of the shipwreck, Nan'ao One, and their ages

  • Table 1   C dating results of the samples






    14C年龄(a BP)

    2σ 范围(AD/BC)







    777~792, 801~849, 852~970






    894~932, 936~996, 1007~1011






    773~893, 934~936






    660~717, 742~776







    1058~1075, 1154~1224







    1279~1310, 1360~1387






    356~364, 381~433, 457~468, 488~533








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