Chinese Science Bulletin, Volume 62 , Issue 2-3 : 136-151(2017) https://doi.org/10.1360/N972016-00854

Magnetic micro-/nanoscale swimmers: Current status and potential applications

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  • ReceivedAug 2, 2016
  • AcceptedSep 12, 2016
  • PublishedOct 25, 2016


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香港研究局 ECS(439113)



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  • Figure 1

    The double-hinged theoretical swimmer at low Reynolds number proposed by Purcell. (a) The non-reciprocal motion of swimmer creates a net displacement after a periodic cycle. (b) The reciprocal motion of swimmer only induces a back and forth motion after a cycle[7]. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Chemistry

  • Figure 2

    Magnetic fields that were used to actuate micro/nanoscale swimmers. (a) Magnetic field with a field vector rotating in a plane. (b) Magnetic field with a field vector rotating along the mantel of a cone. (c) Magnetic field with a field vector oscillating up and down in a plane. (d) On-off magnetic field. (e) Magnetic field with field gradient along the direction of the field. (f) Magnetic field with field gradient perpendicular to the direction of the field[12]. Copyright © 2013 Royal Society of Chemistry

  • Figure 3

    Locomotion of microorganisms at low Reynolds number. (a) Paramecium moves by swinging cilia in a coordinated and periodical manner. (b) Eucaryote moves by swinging flagella. (c) Prokaryote moves by rotating flagella[13]. Copyright © 2009 SAGE Publishing

  • Figure 4

    (Color online) The actuation mechanism of helical micro-/ nanoscale swimmer using a rotating magnetic field

  • Figure 5

    (Color online) Helical swimmers fabricated by different methods and their swimming performance. (a) Centimeter-scale helical swimmers consisting of a cubic SmCo5 magnet as magnetic head and a spiral copper wire as helical tail[14]. Copyright © 1996 IEEE. (b) Helical microswimmers fabricated by photolithography and self-scrolling technique[15,16]. Ref. [15], Copyright © 2009 AIP Publishing. Ref. [16], Copyright © 2016 Nature Publishing Group. (c) Helical nanoswimmers fabricated by GLAD[17]. Copyright © 2009 American Chemical Society. (d) Helical microswimmers fabricated by 3-dimensional direct laser writing and their potential application in assisted fertilization[18–20]. Ref. [18], Copyright © 2012 Wiley. Ref. [19], Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society. Ref. [20], Copyright © 2015 Wiley. (e) Helical microswimmers fabricated by anodic aluminum oxide template assisted electrochemical deposition[21]. Copyright © 2014 Royal Society of Chemistry. (f) Bioinspired helical microswimmers based on vascular plants[22]. Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society

  • Figure 6

    (Color online) The navigation principle of flexible micro-/ nanoscale swimmer actuated by an oscillating magnetic field

  • Figure 7

    (Color online) Different flexible swimmers actuated by oscillating magnetic fields and their swimming performance. (a) Centimeter-scale swimmer consisting of a NdFeB magnet as magnetic head and a thin film as flexible tail[29]. Copyright © 2005 IEEE. (b) Flexible microscopic artificial swimmer, in which, double-stranded DNA with biotin at each end can bind the superparamagnetic particles coated with streptavidin together via the specific biotin-streptavidin interaction as a flexible tail[30]. Copyright © 2005 Nature Publishing Group. (c) Magnetosperm that navigates using weak oscillating magnetic field[31]. Copyright © 2014 AIP Publishing

  • Figure 8

    (Color online) Other kinds of micro-/nanoscale swimmers actuated by magnetic field and their swimming performance. (a) U-shaped microrobot actuated by magnetic field gradient[35]. Copyright © 2013 SAGE Publications. (b) Microrobots with various patterns coded by magnetic field[38]. Copyright © 2014 Nature Publishing Group. (c) Magnetic device pushed along a surface by a rotating dipole field[39]. Copyright © 2011 AIP Publishing. (d) Paramagnetic doublet floating above a glass plate actuated by magnetic field[40]. Copyright © 2008 American Physical Society. (e) A chain of superparamagnetic beads that moves along a surface according to the applied magnetic field[41]. Copyright © 2010 National Academy of Sciences. (f) Nickel nanowire propelled near a patterned solid surface by rotating magnetic field[42]. Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society

  • Figure 9

    (Color online) Chemical fuel-propelled microrobots steered by magnetic field. (a) Multi-segment nanorod which can be propelled by self-electrophoresis[48]. Copyright © 2004 American Chemical Society. (b)–(d) Multi-segment nanorod propelled by self-electrophoresis which can be steered by magnetic field simultaneously[49–52]. Ref. [49], Copyright © 2005 Wiley. Ref. [50], Copyright © 2008 American Chemical Society. Ref. [51], Copyright © 2008 American Chemical Society. Ref. [52], Copyright © 2008 American Chemical Society. (e) Bubble-propelled microtubular jet engines which can be steered by magnetic field simultaneously[53]. Copyright © 2009 Wiley. (f) Bubble-propelled Janus microparticle which can be steered by magnetic field simultaneously[54]. Copyright © 2013 Royal Society of Chemistry

  • Figure 10

    (Color online) Motion control of MTB using external magnetic fields. (a) SEM image of magnetospirillum magnetotacticum (MS-1)[37]. Copyright © 2004 American Chemical Society. (b) MTB whose motion can be controlled to push a microbead by magnetic field[70]. Copyright © 2006 AIP Publishing. (c) A swarm of magnetotactic bacteria which can be controlled by external magnetic field to perform complex micro-assembly tasks[71]. Copyright © 2010 IEEE

  • Figure 11

    Research and development roadmap of magnetic micro-/ nanoscale swimmers


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