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An accurate, high-speed, portable bifunctional electrical detector for COVID-19

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  • ReceivedSep 16, 2020
  • AcceptedNov 25, 2020
  • PublishedDec 29, 2020

Abstract


Funded by

the National Key R&D Program of China(2017YFA0204901)

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(21727806,21772003,21933001)

the Tencent Foundation through the XPLORER PRIZE

Guangdong Major Project of Basic and Applied Basic Research(2019B030302007)

and Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences(BNLMS201901)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFA0204901), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21727806, 21772003 and 21933001), the Tencent Foundation through the XPLORER PRIZE, Guangdong Major Project of Basic and Applied Basic Research (2019B030302007), and Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS201901).


Interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Contributions statement

Guo X, Mo F, Wang P and Huang F conceived and designed the experiments; Ke G, Su D and Li Y fabricated the devices and performed the device measurements; Zhao Y, Wang H, Xiao F and Yuan Y designed and built the measurement machines; Liu W and Yang Z provided the antigen protein; Li M and Wang P provided the clinical samples; Guo X, Mo F, Wang P, Ke G and Su D analyzed the data and wrote the paper. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.


Author information

Guojun Ke received his BS degree in 2012 and PhD degree in 2017 from the School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-Sen University, respectively. From 2013 to 2016, he was a visiting student at the University of Basel. He is currently working as a postdoctoral fellow in South China University of Technology. His current research focuses on device physics of single-molecule junctions.


Dingkai Su received his BS degree in 2017 from the College of Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University. He is currently a PhD candidate at the College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, under the guidance of Prof. Xuefeng Guo. His research interest focuses on single-molecule devices and dynamics.


Xuefeng Guo received his PhD degree in 2004 from the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. From 2004 to 2007, he was a postdoctoral research scientist at the Columbia University Nanocenter. He joined the faculty as a professor under the “Peking 100-Talent” Program at Peking University in 2008. His research focuses on functional nanometer/molecular devices.


Supplement

Supplementary Information

Experimental details and supporting data are available in the online version of this paper.


References

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  • Figure 1

    Schematic diagram of the operation procedure of our G-FET-based biosensing system for COVID-19. Top left: Extraction of viral RNA. Bottom left: from Si wafer to plug-and-play graphene packaged chips. Top right: home-developed portable electrical detector. Bottom right: illustration of the ss-DNA probe immobilization onto graphene using a typical PBASE linker, followed by hybridization with an RNA target.

  • Figure 2

    Surface analyses of pristine, PBASE-modified, ss-DNA-immobilized, and antigen-immobilized graphene using Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and AFM. (a) Optical image of a G-FET array in a packaged biosensor chip. (b) Raman spectra of pristine and PBASE-modified graphene. (c, d) High-resolution XPS spectra and enlarged N 1s region for pristine and PBASE-modified graphene. (e–h) AFM images of pristine graphene (e), PBASE-modified graphene (f), ss-DNA probe-immobilized graphene (g) and antigen protein-immobilized graphene (h). Scale bar = 2 μm.

  • Figure 3

    Sensitivity and reusability. (a, c) IDVD curves of G-FET biosensors responding to different concentrations of RdRp target (a) and antibody protein (c). Insets are partially enlarged curves. (b, d) Values of ΔID/I0 at VD = 50 mV extracted and plotted as a function of the concentration of RdRp target (b) and antibody protein (d). (e) Hybridization and dehybridization cycles of the same device.

  • Table 1   Nucleic acid analysis of COVID-19 patients and healthy subjectsa

    Patient 1

    Patient 2

    Patient 3

    Patient 4

    Patient 5

    Patient 6

    Patient 7

    Patient 8

    Patient 9

    ΔR/R0 (%)

    −9

    −5.8

    −2.8

    −3.6

    −5.9

    −8.9

    −6.2

    −3.1

    −6.1

    G-FET results

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    Agreement

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Patient 10

    Health 1

    Health 2

    Health 3

    Health 4

    Health 5

    Health 6

    Health 7

    Health 8

    ΔR/R0 (%)

    −5.4

    1.6

    −0.3

    2

    3.2

    4.1

    5.3

    2.9

    2.2

    G-FET results

    +

    Agreement

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    “Cutoff value” was set at −2; “+” represents positive, and “−” represents negative; “Yes” indicates that the G-FET result is in consistence with the clinical standard samples.

  • Table 2   Antibody analysis of COVID-19 patients and healthy subjectsa

    Number

    Patient 1

    Patient 2

    Patient 3

    Patient 4

    Patient 5

    Patient 6

    Health 1

    Health 2

    Health 3

    ΔR/R0 (%)

    −2.6

    −4.5

    −4.5

    −2.8

    −1.3

    −2.6

    0.7

    0.2

    1.1

    G-FETs results

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    Agreement

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    Yes

    “Cutoff value” was set at −1; “+” represents positive, and “−” represents negative; “Yes” indicates that the G-FET result is in consistence with the clinical standard samples.

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