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SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 7 : 1050-1064(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-020-9783-2

Observational study of land-atmosphere turbulent flux exchange over complex underlying surfaces in urban and suburban areas

More info
  • ReceivedDec 25, 2020
  • AcceptedMay 7, 2021
  • PublishedJun 17, 2021

Abstract


Funded by

the National Key Research & Development Program of China(Grant,No.,2016YFC0200500)

Youth Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant,No.,41805007)


Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFC0200500) and the Youth Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41805007).


References

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  • Figure 1

    Location of three observation points in the Yangtze River Delta. The red, blue, and yellow marks represent the location of DX, XL, and SZ Stations, respectively; Source: Google Earth.

  • Figure 2

    Aerial image of surface conditions near observation sites and schematic diagram of terrain and building height near suburban and urban observation sites. (a) Aerial photo of surface condition near XL Station, where the pink area is Xianlin Campus of Nanjing University; Source: Google Earth. (b) Schematic diagram of terrain height and building height within the radius of 800 m near XL Station, where the height of color code is based on the average altitude of roads and ground in the campus. (c) Aerial photo of surface condition near DX Station; Source: Google Earth. (d) Schematic diagram of building height within the radius of 800 m near DX Station (inner radius of 500 m), where the dark blue area indicates that the height of buildings is lower than the height of the building where the observation tower is located, the light blue area indicates that the height of buildings is lower than the height of flux observation of the lower floor but higher than the height of the building where the observation tower is located, the light red area indicates that the building height is between the flux observation heights of the two floors, the dark red area indicates that the height of buildings is higher than the flux observation height of the upper floor, and the angle indicated by dotted line and solid line in the figure represent the starting wind direction and the end wind direction within wind direction range corresponding to the observation data used for analysis. (e) Aerial photo of surface condition near SZ Station; Source: Google Earth. (f) Schematic diagram of building height within the radius of 800 m near SZ Station, where the marking rules of color code and meaning of dotted and solid lines in the drawing are the same as those in (d).

  • Figure 3

    Average diurnal variation in sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and momentum fluxes at DX Station (left) and SZ Station (right). The height marked in the figure is that from the roof of the building where the observation tower is located. The shaded area indicates that the significance of the difference between the mean values of turbulent flux at two heights passed the t-test at the 95% confidence level.

  • Figure 4

    Box plot of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and momentum flux ratios at DX Station (left) and SZ Station (right).

  • Figure 5

    Average diurnal variations in sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and momentum flux at three observation heights at XL Station. The shaded area indicates that the significance of the difference between the mean values of turbulent flux at 25 and 2.6 m passed the t-test of 95% confidence level.

  • Figure 6

    Box plot for sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and momentum flux ratios between two observation heights at XL Station during daytime. The left figure shows the ratios of the fluxes at 50 m to the fluxes at 25 m on the tower, and the right figure shows the ratios of the fluxes at 25 m on the tower to the fluxes at 2.6 m from the ground.

  • Figure 7

    Ratio variations in sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and momentum flux at two observation heights at XL Station with wind direction changes. The left figure shows the turbulent flux ratio at 25 m on the tower and 2.6 m from the ground, and the right figure shows the turbulent flux ratios at 50 and 25 m on the tower. The red line is the median position, and the pink shaded regions represent the distribution range of 50% data in the middle.

  • Figure 8

    Average diurnal variations in sensible heat fluxes at 2.6 m from ground level and 25 m on the tower at XL Station, and at 26.5 m on the tower at DX Station in different seasons.

  • Figure 9

    Average diurnal variations in latent heat fluxes at 2.6 m from ground level and 25 m on the tower at XL Station, and at 26.5 m on the tower at DX Station in different seasons.

  • Figure 10

    Observed Rn, H, and LE and mean diurnal variation in Qs according to eq. (6) at 11.5 and 26.5 m on the tower at DX Station.

  • Table 1   Underlying surface and environmental parameters within a radius of 800 m around observation towersa)

    Station

    Terrain

    Attribute of underlying surface

    Mean building height (m)

    Plan aerial fraction λp

    Proportion of impermeable surface (%)

    XL Station

    Hilly

    North: dominated by bare land and mountains

    South: characterized by urban underling surface

    20.0

    0.04

    10.2

    20.4

    0.21

    64.8

    DX Station

    Flat

    Typical urban underlying surface

    21.6 (20.9)

    0.28 (0.29)

    87.4

    SZ Station

    Flat

    Typical urban underlying surface

    18.5 (16.8)

    0.26 (0.27)

    83.3

    The data in parentheses refers to the mean building height within the scope of the wind direction selected (range of wind direction angle is 300°→120° for DX Station and 150°→330° for SZ Station)

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