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SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, Volume 64 , Issue 6 : 839-852(2021) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-020-9774-0

Spatial variations in the trophic status of Favia palauensis corals in the South China Sea: Insights into their different adaptabilities under contrasting environmental conditions

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  • ReceivedMar 3, 2020
  • AcceptedApr 23, 2021
  • PublishedMay 18, 2021

Abstract


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant,Nos.,42090041,42030502,&,41663001)

the Laboratory for Marine Geology

Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Grant,No.,MGQNLM-TD201801)

the Guangxi scientific projects(Grant,Nos.,AD17129063,AA17204074,&,2020GXNSFAA297026)


Acknowledgment

The data used in this paper are available from Appendix materials. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 42090041, 42030502 & 41663001), the Laboratory for Marine Geology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Grant No. MGQNLM-TD201801), the Guangxi Scientific Projects (Grant Nos. AD17129063, AA17204074 & 2020GXNSFAA297026).


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  • Figure 1

    The study area and sampling sites in the South China Sea (The geographical base map of China was downloaded from http://bzdt.ch.mnr.gov.cn/). (a) Sampling point map of Sanya (red pentagram); (b) sampling point map of the Xisha Islands (red pentagram); (c) sampling point map of the Nansha Islands (red pentagram). The geographical base map of Sanya, the Xisha Islands and Nansha Islands was downloaded from https://map.tianditu.gov.cn/.

  • Figure 2

    The zooxanthellae density average values are expressed as the mean±SD in the samples from coral reefs in Sanya, the Xisha Islands and the Nansha Islands. a–c indicate posthoc multiple comparisons of ZD among sampling sites.

  • Figure 3

    The δ13Cz, δ13Ch and Δh−z 13C values are expressed as the mean±SD in the samples from coral reefs in Sanya, the Xisha Islands and the Nansha Islands. (a) The average δ13Cz values; (b) the average δ13Ch values; (c) the average Δh−z 13C values in Sanya, the Xisha Islands and Nansha Islands coral reefs. The a and b indicate post-hoc multiple comparisons the coral isotope values among sampling sites.

  • Figure 4

    Correlations between zooxanthellae density and δ13Cz values of each coral sample from the three coral reefs.

  • Figure 5

    (a) Correlations between zooxanthellae density and Δh−z 13C values of each coral sample from three coral reefs; (b) correlations between tissue biomass and Δh−z 13C values of samples from Sanya.

  • Figure 6

    Correlations between tissue biomass and skeletal δ13C values of coral samples from Sanya.

  • Table 1   One-way ANOVA testing the spatial effect on ZD and isotopic composition of corals (δ13Cz, δ13Ch and Δh−z 13C)

    Parameters

    Value

    ZD

    F

    26.5

    p

    <0.001

    δ13Cz

    F

    3.6

    p

    <0.05

    δ13Ch

    F

    32.8

    p

    <0.001

    Δh−z 13C

    F

    8.9

    p

    <0.001

  • Table 2   Environmental parameters of Sanya and the Xisha and Nansha Islands in the SCS

    Parameters

    Sanya

    Xisha Islands

    Nansha Islands

    Annual mean SST (°C)

    26.38±0.36

    27.56±0.33

    28.62±0.30

    May–August mean SST (°C)

    28.99±0.39

    29.30±0.34

    29.45±0.37

    Annual mean SSS (‰)

    33.60±0.15

    33.64±0.20

    33.28±0.22

    May–August mean SSS (‰)

    33.52±0.15

    33.65±0.23

    33.38±0.23

    POC (mg m−3)

    135.6±27

    <45.4±1.18

    <51.7±2.02

    Chl a (mg m−3)

    0.5±0.11

    0.1±0.07

    0.13±0.09

    In-situ turbidity (NTU)

    1.0~1.2

    0.2~0.38

    0.1~0.23

    In-situ transparency (m)

    4.6

    17.7

    24.4

    In-situ SST (°C)

    28.8

    29.8

    30.6

    In-situ pH

    8.18

    8.24

    8.21

    DIN (μmol L−1)

    2.94

    1.31

    1.37

    SRP (μmol L−1)

    0.49

    0.08

    0.05

  • Table 3   Correlations between ZD and environmental parameters for all samplesa)

    Parameters

    Pearson correlation

    Sig. (2-tailed)

    N

    Annual mean SST (°C)

    −0.655**

    0

    70

    May–August mean SST (°C)

    −0.655**

    0

    70

    Annual mean SSS (‰)

    0.456**

    0

    70

    May–August mean SSS (‰)

    0.227

    0.059

    70

    pH

    −0.399**

    0.001

    70

    DIN (μmol L−1)

    0.592**

    0

    70

    SRP (μmol L−1)

    0.616**

    0

    70

    Chl a (mg m−3)

    0.582**

    0

    70

    Turbidity (NTU)

    0.629**

    0

    70

    Transparency (m)

    −0.656**

    0

    70

    ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

  • Table 4   Correlations between δ13Cz and environmental parameters for all samplesa)

    Parameters

    Pearson correlation

    Sig. (2-tailed)

    N

    Turbidity (NTU)

    0.312**

    0.008

    70

    Transparency (m)

    −0.309**

    0.009

    70

    DIN (μmol L−1)

    0.306*

    0.01

    70

    SRP (μmol L−1)

    0.311**

    0.009

    70

    ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

  • Table 5   Correlation between δ13Ch, Δh−z13C and environmental parameters and ZD for all samplesa)

    Parameters

    δ13Ch

    Δh−z 13C

    Pearson correlation

    Sig. (2-tailed)

    N

    Pearson correlation

    Sig. (2-tailed)

    N

    Chl a (mg m−3)

    0.692**

    0

    70

    0.455**

    0

    70

    POC (mg m−3)

    0.693**

    0

    70

    0.455**

    0

    70

    Turbidity (NTU)

    0.703**

    0

    70

    0.458**

    0

    70

    DIN (μmol L−1)

    0.696**

    0

    70

    0.457**

    0

    70

    SRP (μmol L−1)

    0.702**

    0

    70

    0.459**

    0

    70

    Transparency (m)

    −0.683**

    0

    70

    −0.440**

    0

    70

    Annual mean SST (°C)

    −0.648**

    0

    70

    −0.413**

    0

    70

    May–August mean SST (°C)

    −0.686**

    0

    70

    −0.442**

    0

    70

    **, Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

qqqq

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