SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 12 : 1847-1856(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-018-9348-2

Rapid improvement of PM2.5 pollution and associated health benefits in China during 2013–2017

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  • ReceivedSep 19, 2018
  • AcceptedMar 19, 2019
  • PublishedJul 2, 2019


Funded by

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant,Nos.,41571130032,41571130035,41625020,&,41701591)

the National Key R & D program(Grant,No.,2016YFC0201506)


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41571130032, 41571130035, 41625020 & 41701591) and the National Key R & D Program (Grant No. 2016YFC0201506).


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  • Figure 1

    National and regional annual mean fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations (a) and daily pollution levels (b) during 2013–2017.

  • Figure 2

    Annual mean PM2.5 concentrations during 2013–2017 ((a)–(e)), and changes therein, (f) in China. Due to data availability, the concentrations in Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and some islands in the South China Sea are not shown here and the following maps.

  • Figure 3

    Exposure to PM2.5 in China during 2013–2017: annual mean (a) and daily mean (b) data.

  • Figure 4

    Number of premature deaths attributable to exposure to ambient PM2.5 in 2013–2017.

  • Figure 5

    Sensitivity analysis results: (a) the number of premature deaths attributable to short-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 in 2013–2017; (b) the number of avoided deaths due to reduction of short-term PM2.5 exposure during 2013–2017.

  • Figure 6

    Estimated (a) and actual (b) reductions in PM2.5 concentrations during 2013–2017 in different provinces. Panel (c) presents the corresponding number of avoided deaths due to reduction of long-term PM2.5 exposure.