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SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, Volume 62 , Issue 1 : 256-286(2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-017-9262-y

Cretaceous integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China

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  • ReceivedOct 27, 2017
  • AcceptedAug 13, 2018
  • PublishedSep 19, 2018

Abstract


Acknowledgment

The authors would like to extend their sincere gratitude to Zhou Zhonghe, Wang Yongdong and Xu Keming, who reviewed the paper and made valuable suggestions. During the writing of this paper, He Huaiyu, Wu Huaichun, Benjamin Sames, Shen Yang and Jiang Tian made useful recommendations, and Qin Zuohuan, Muhammad Kamran, Yu Zhiqiang, Shi Zhongye, Cui Can, Wang Guannan, Xiong Xin, Sun Yanqi, Gu Anqi, Ye Yunqi, Wang Xuejiao and Wu Baoxu reviewed selected chapters and figures; we are most appreciative of their help. We also thank Shen Shuzhong and Rong Jiayu for their invitation to develop this paper and for their guidance. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41790452, 41688103, 41172037 and 41272030). This paper is a contribution to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization-International Union for Geological Sciences International Geoscience Programme (UNESCO-IUGS IGCP) “Climate-environmental deteriorations during greenhouse phases: Causes and consequences of short-term Cretaceous sea-level changes”.


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  • Figure 1

    Classification and comparison of international Cretaceous stratigraphy. International stratigraphic chart, after Ogg and Hinnov (2012) and Ogg et al. (2016); biozone after Hardenbol et al. (1998), Ogg and Hinnov (2012), Haq (2014); sea level change after Haq (2014); carbon isotope after Ogg and Hinnov (2012); oxygen isotope data after Haq(2014). Marker of the Berriasian after Wimbledon (2017); Marker of the Albian after Kennedy et al. (2017); Marker of other stages after Ogg and Hinnov (2012) and Ogg et al. (2016). FAD: First appearance datum; LAD: last appearance datum.

  • Figure 2

    Distribution of Cretaceous sediments in China. After Chen (2000a), Wan et al. (2007), Cao (2013), Li and Matsuoka (2015). Earliest to mid-early Cretaceous deposits in eastern Heilongjiang are marine-terrestrial interbedded facies. Late Cretaceous deposits in the western Tarim Basin and Karakorum are marine facies. Stratigraphic provinces include I: northeast; II: north; III: southeast; IV: central-south; V: southwest; VI: northwest; VII: Xinjiang-Tibet Tethys. HL: Hailar Basin; JY: Jiayin Basin; SL: Songliao Basin; JL: Jiaolai Basin; NHB: South China Basin; HF: Hefei Basin; SB: Subei Basin; NY: Nanyang Basin; NX: Nanxiong Basin; SC: Sichuan Basin; JH: Jianghan Basin; CX: Chuxiong Basin; LPS: ERDS: Ordos Basin; Liupanshan Basin; XN-LZ: Xining-Lanzhou Basin; QDM: Qaidam Basin; JQ: Jiuquan Basin; ZG: Junggar Basin; TH: Tuha Basin; KQ: Kuqa Basin.

  • Figure 3

    Comprehensive Cretaceous chronostratigraphic framework of China. International stages are based on the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), 2016). The standards for terrestrial stratigraphic subdivision are as follows: The Lower Cretaceous is based on the stratigraphic sequence in north Hebei and western Liaoning; the Upper Cretaceous is based on the stratigraphic sequence in the Songliao Basin; the marine stratigraphic subdivision is based on the Himalayan stratigraphic sequence; ammonite biozones are from Yin (2016); magnetostratigraphic data are from Deng et al. (2013); chemostratigraphic data are from Li et al. (2006), and OAEs and lacustrine anoxic events (LAEs) are from the Songliao Basin.

  • Figure 4

    Late Cretaceous multi-stratigraphic subdivisions and correlations of the SK-1, Songliao Basin. The blue curve represents the Th curve in the north core and GR curve in south core (the Th curve in Yaojia Formation). The red curve represents the 405000-year-old eccentricity cycle identified by the GR/Th curve. The timescale is from Wan et al. (2013b); the magnetostratigraphic curve is from Deng et al. (2013); the U-Pb analysis is according to He et al. (2012) and Wang et al. (2016). The GR/Th curve and associated 40000-year filtering results are from Wu et al. (2013a, 2014); the south and north cores in the Songliao Basin feature the oil shale at the bottom of K2n2.

  • Figure 5

    Late Cretaceous biostratigraphic sequence in the Northeast stratigraphic province of China. After Wan et al. (2013a) and China Committee of Stratigraphy (CCS), 2018). Int., international stage; Ter., Terrestrial stage of China.

  • Figure 6

    Late Cretaceous biostratigraphic sequence in the northeast stratigraphic province of China. After Wan et al. (2013a) and China Committee of Stratigraphy (CCS), 2018). Int., international stage; Ter., Terrestrial stage of China.

  • Figure 7

    Stratigraphic subdivision and correlation in the Tethys area of Tibet and Xinjiang.

  • Figure 8

    Stratigraphic subdivision and correlation of Cretaceous strata in the northeast stratigraphic province of China.

  • Figure 9

    Stratigraphic subdivision and correlation of Cretaceous strata in the north and southeast stratigraphic provinces. HK: Houkuang; LSS: Linsishan; LWZ: Longwangzhuang; MLP: Malianpo; QGZ: Qugezhuang; SN: Shuinan; YJZ: Yangjiazhuang; ZFZ: Zhifengzhuang.

  • Figure 10

    Stratigraphic subdivision and correlation of the Cretaceous strata in the northwest, southwest and south-central stratigraphic provinces.

  • Figure 11

    Cretaceous stratigraphic subdivisions and correlations in China. NX: Nanxiong Basin; SC: Sichuan Basin; JH: Jianghan Basin; CX: Chuxiong Basin; LPS: Liupanshan Basin; XN-LZ: Xining-Lanzhou Basin; QDM: Qaidam Basin; JQ: Jiuquan Basin; ZG: Junggar Basin; TH: Tuha Basin; KQ: Kuqa Basin; ERDS: Ordos Basin; YLZ: Yarlung Zangbo Suture zone. Northeast, northeast stratigraphic province; North, north stratigraphic province; Southwest, southwest stratigraphic province; Central-south, central-south stratigraphic provinces; Southeast, southeast stratigraphic provinces; Northwest, northwest stratigraphic province; Xinjiang-Tibet Tethys, Xinjiang-Tibet Tethys stratigraphic province.

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