SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, Volume 60 , Issue 3 : 452-462(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-016-0181-1

Longgudong, an Early Pleistocene site in Jianshi, South China, with stratigraphic association of human teeth and lithics

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  • ReceivedNov 1, 2016
  • AcceptedDec 14, 2016
  • PublishedJan 17, 2017



Our warmest appreciation goes to Professor Zheng Shaohua for his generous permission to restudy the Longgudong site and for his selfless support of this research, to Professor Liu Wu for providing photos of the hominin teeth, to Professor Tong Haowen for suggestions on the age of Longgudong fauna and its comparison with those from other sites, to Professor R. J. Clarke for discussion of affinities of the Longgudong teeth, and to Xu Yong for lithic illustration. This research has been funded by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Pioneer Hundred Talents Program, and the China-South Africa Bilateral Programme in Palaeolithic Archaeology to Gao Xing (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, China-South Africa Joint Research Program-7) and K. Kuman (National Research Foundation, Grant No. 88480).


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  • Figure 1

    The Chinese Early Pleistocene sites mentioned in this paper and location of the stratigraphic sections in the Longgudong site. The colorful picture shows the actual stratigraphy of section C-C′.

  • Figure 2

    Stratigraphic sections and correlated layers. On the right, two palaeomagnetic results are compared with the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS).

  • Figure 3

    Specimens (a)–(d) on the left show teeth of the Longgudong hominin found earlier, and specimens (e)–(g) on the right show those excavated in 1999 and 2000. (a) is a left lower second molar (PA502), (b) is a right lower second molar (PA503), (c) is a right lower second molar (PA504), (d) is a right lower first molar (PA507), (e) is a right lower first molar (PA1277), (f) is a right upper third premolar (PA1278), and (g) is a left upper first molar (PA1279).

  • Figure 4

    Flakes excavated from the site. (a), (b) and (c) are numbered 20, 17 and 7 respectively in Appendix A.

  • Figure 5

    Cores and flakes excavated from the site. (a) and (b) show cores of freehand percussion (numbered 21 and 25 in Appendix A), (c) shows a bipolar core (numbered 24 in Appendix A), (k) shows a bipolar flake (numbered 1 in Appendix A), while all others (d)–(j) show freehand percussed flakes (numbered 2, 10, 6, 13, 5, 11 and 9 in Appendix A).

  • Figure 6

    Illustrations of flakes and cores excavated from the site. (a) to (c) and (g) to (m) show freehand percussed flakes, and (n) shows a bipolar flake. (d) and (e) show freehand percussed cores, while (f) shows a bipolar core.

  • Table 1   Comparison of large mammal fossils from the Early Pleistocene sites in south and central China




    Mohui Cave










    Stegodon preorientalis




    Stegodon orientalis




    Tapirus sanyuanensis






    Tapirus sinensis




    Ailuropoda microta




    Ailuropoda wulingshanensis




    Pachycrocuta licenti







    Pachycrocuta sinensis


  • Table 2   The common genera and species of Longgudong site shared with other Early Pleistocene cave sites in south China


    Common genera

    Percentage in the total of Longgudong

    Common species

    Percentage in the total of Longgudong

    Wushan Longgupo





    Liuzhou Bijiashan





    Daxin Heidong





    Daoxian Dongpaoshan





    Wuming Lalishan





    Bama Nongmoshan





    Modified from Zheng (2004)

  • Table 3   Data for flakes and cores at the Longgudong site



    Length (mm)

    Width (mm)

    Thickness (mm)

    Weight (g)










































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