SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Volume 60 , Issue 12 : 1357-1363(2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-017-9263-6

The persistent prevalence and evolution of cross-family recombinant coronavirus GCCDC1 among a bat population:a two-year follow-up

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  • ReceivedSep 11, 2017
  • AcceptedOct 23, 2017
  • PublishedDec 1, 2017


Funded by

grants from the National Key Research and Development Program of China(2017YFC1200202)

the National Natural Science Foundation of China(81290342,81461168030)

the Major Special Projects for Infectious Disease Research of China(2016ZX10004222-003)

and China National Grand S&T Special Project(2014ZX10004-001-006)

The World Academy of Sciences(TWAS)

data collection and analysis

decision to publish

or preparation of the manuscript.


We appreciate the great efforts of Drs. Yongming Zhou, Honghua Wen, Huaxing Liu, who participated in the collection of the bat samples. This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFC1200202), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81290342, 81461168030), the Major Special Projects for Infectious Disease Research of China (2016ZX10004222-003), and China National Grand S&T Special Project (2014ZX10004-001-006). Joseph O. Obameso was supported by CAS-TWAS President’s Fellowship of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS) and The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS). George F. Gao is a leading principle investigator of the NSFC Innovative Research Group (81621091). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Interest statement

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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  • Figure 1

    Phylogenetic analyses of Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 for three sampling periods. Evolutionary trees of RdRp (A) and P10 (B) constructed for the samples collected from May, 2014 to Oct., 2015 has indicated by different colors as labeled. The maximum-likelihood trees were constructed with 1,000 replication available in MGEA6.

  • Figure 2

    Phylogenetic relationships of Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 compared to other viruses. Phylogenetic trees of the p10 sequence of Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 together with the p10 genes from other reoviruses. The phylograms were constructed by using MEGA6 software package to determine the maximum-likelihood tree for the sequence.

  • Figure 3

    Multiple sequence alignment of Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 genes based on samples from three sampling periods. Sequence alignment of deduced amino acid of RdRp (A) and p10 proteins (B). Consensus and sequence logo for conserved amino acid residues are shown on top of the alignment. The residues with color indicate the position of mutation.

  • Figure 4

    Recombination analysis of Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1. A, The recombination model for Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 based on the different groups of RdRp (Group I and Group II) and p10 proteins (Group A and Group B). The groups are based on the different combinations of polymorphic amino acid residues in Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1. B, The ratios of different recombinants of Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 revealed two new groups, IIA and IIB

  • Table 1   Summary of sampling detail and coronavirus infections in bats

    Sampling time

    Bats with swabsamples collected

    Bats with CoVpositive (%)*

    May 2014


    47 (39.8%)

    October 2014


    70 (38.8%)

    October 2015


    64 (35.6%)

    *, All the positive samples were defined based on the PCR amplicons with the length of 228 bp of Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 RdRp as described in Table2. 97 RdRp sequences out of the 181 samples which had the corresponding p10 sequences were utilized for the GCCDC evolution.

  • Table 2   The primers for coronaviridae gene identification and amplification

    Primer name

    Target gene

    Sequence (5′→3′)

    G+C (%)

    Tm (oC)

    Length of the amplification







    OF+OR=299 bp






    IF+OR=228 bp











    OF+OR=715 bp











    IF+IR=447 bp







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