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SCIENCE CHINA Life Sciences, Volume 59 , Issue 3 : 292-298(2016) https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-016-5007-8

Roles and mechanisms of ginsenoside in cardiovascular diseases: progress and perspectives

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  • ReceivedSep 8, 2015
  • AcceptedNov 4, 2015
  • PublishedJan 20, 2016

Abstract


Funded by

National Natural Science Foundation of China(81403266)

Sponsored Project from Advisor of Beijing Outstanding Doctorate Dissertation(20138450201)


Acknowledgment

Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81403266) and the Sponsored Project from Advisor of Beijing Outstanding Doctorate Dissertation (20138450201).


Interest statement

Compliance and ethics The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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  • Figure 1

    Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer plant and chemical structures of ginsenoside subtypes. A, Illustration of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. B–D, Chemical structures of protopanaxadiol-type (B), oleanolic acid-type (C), and protopanaxatriol-type (D).

  • Figure 2

    Putative mechanisms underlying cardiovascular protective effects of ginsenosides.

  • Table 1   Classification of ginsenosides

    Subtype

    Ginsenoside

    Protopanaxadiol (PPD) type

    Ra (1,2,3)

    Rb (1,2,3)

    Rc

    Rd

    Rg3+

    Rh2+

    F2

    Compound K

    Oleanolic acid type

    Ro

    Rh3

    Ri

    Protopanaxatriol (PPT) type

    Rg1

    Rg2

    Re

    Rf

    Rh1

    F1

  • Table 2   Ingredients of frequently used patented Chinese medicines (ginseng preparations) for cardiovascular diseases

    No.

    Trade names of ginsengpreparations

    Ingredients

    Types of ginsenoside

    References

    1

    Zhenyuan capsule

    Total saponins in the fruit of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer

    Ginsenoside Re

    (Zhao, 2014)

    2

    Xinyue capsule

    Panax quinquefolium saponin

    Ginsenoside Rg1, Re, and Rb3

    (Yang et al., 2013)

    3

    Shenmai injection

    Red ginseng and Radix ophiopogonis

    Ginsenoside Rg1 and Re

    (Cao et al., 2011)

    4

    Shengmai injection

    Red ginseng, Radix ophiopogonis, and Schisandra chinensis

    Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rc

    (Lu et al., 2011)

    5

    Shenfu injection

    Red ginseng and Aconitum carmichaelii

    Ginsenoside Rd, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rg1, and Ro

    (He et al., 2014)

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